Skip to main content

Full text of "Heal the sick : an appeal for medical missions in China"

See other formats


i 



i\^x.i> 



R.().L.Kl[,BOHN 







:/■ 







Wi *i^m;memm^ 


-•!« 1 


/l^^^*^:^^ zJ> 


-1^ 1 


'^^^^^1 ^ 


^ 41 1 




•n, ^ - 



HIS EXCELLENCY VICEROY HSI LIANG. 

Though a non-Christian, he is, thus far, the largest single con- 
tributor to Medical Mission work in Chengtu. His gifts 
totalled over $2,000. 



a> 



Att Appeal fnr fM^btral 



BY 



OMAR L. KILBORN, M.A., M.D. 

Missionary of the Methodist Church, Canada, 
in West China 



" The medical missionary's object is two- fold— to preach 
the Gospel and to heal the sick ; and while his skill and 
success as a practitioner are to be made subservient to his 
evangelistic work, still his ministry of healing is, in itself, 
a service which, in the mission field, is of inestimable 
value." 



TEXT-BOOK No. 6 




TORONTO : 

Wc^t ^liBaianam l»orirtg of tt{r 4lrtI)a5lBt ait;urci| 

The Younsr People's Forward Movement Department 
F. C. Stephenson, Secretary 



Copyright. Canada. 1910. by 
Frederick Clarke Stephenson. 



TO 

All il^appg nnh l^ruBpttonsi (Hanabtatta 

WHO LIVE WITHIN TWENTY MILES 

OF A DOCTOR, 

AND WHO CAN AND DO CALL HIM 

WHENEVER SICKNESS COMES 

TO THE HOME. 



THE HEALER 

The paths of pain are thine. Go forth 
With patience, trust, and hope; 

The sufferings of a sin-sick earth 
Shall give thee ample scope. 

Beside the unveiled mysteries 

Of life and death go stand. 
With guarded lips and reverent eyes 

And pure of heart and hand. 

So shalt thou be with power endued 

From Him who went about 
The Syrian hillsides doing good, 

And casting demons out. 

That Good Physician liveth yet 
Thy friend and guide to be ; 

The Healer by Gennesaret 

Shall walk the rounds with thee. 



— /. G. Whittier. 



FOREWORD 



This is a most timely book, with a message 
and a mission. It is not a record of doubtful 
diata by a transient visitor to far Cathay, but it 
is the fruit of the experience of many years' 
direct contact with heathenism, given in a vivid 
and telling way. Dr. Kilborn has been face to 
face day after day and year upon year with the 
ugly facts of disease and sin in Western China. 
It has been his double duty, which he has splen- 
didly discharged, to minister to sin-sick souls, 
and to relieve after modern methods the mani- 
fold physical ills of the myriad sufferers in that 
distant land. No one knows better than Dr. 
Kilborn that the Methodist Church of Canada 
has essayed a great task in China. Little won- 
der therefore that he should try to stir the 
hearts of our people by his tale of woes and 
wrongs, and to impress them with the urgent 
need of greater practical interest in that vast 
field of missionary enterprise. He has put the 
case of the medical missionary in its proper 
light and bearing, and has well shown how m- 
5 



Foreword 

valuable he is in aggressive Christian work. It 
is to be hoped that the intensely earnest appeal 
which Dr. Kilbom makes to the hearts and 
consciences of the young men and women of 
Canadian Methodism, to adopt as their life- 
work this noble calling, will meet with a hearty 
response. No one can gainsay the logical con- 
clusion which the author so forcibly presents, 
that the Church must without delay adopt the 
wise policy already followed with great success 
in other departments of its operations, and pro- 
vide facilities on the spot for educating native 
medical missionaries. Only in this ivay can she 
hope to cope with the stupendous work before 
her and discharge her whole duty. 

Richard A. Rttvt. 
Toronto, November ist, 19 lo. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

Foreword - - - - - 5 

Introduction - - - - - 13 

Preface ----- 17 

I. The Scope of the Medical Mission. 
— Medical Mission Work by 
Laymen - - - - - 21 

II. The Medical Missionary, His Quali- 
fications and Preparation. — The 
Medical Missionary and the Chi- 
nese Language - - - - 35 

III. Chinese Drugs and Drug Stores. — 

Chinese Anatomy and Physiology 55 

IV. Diseases in China. — Chinese Doc- 

tors ------ 71 

V. Opium. — The Prohibition of Opium. 

— Opium and the Missionaries - 107 

VI. Foot-binding. — The Missionaries 

and Foot-binding - - - I37 

VII. Slavery and Polygamy - - - I53 

VIII. Chinese Girls and Women. — Women 

Medical Missionaries - - - 169 
7 



Contents 

chapte:r page: 

IX. The Mission Dispensary. — The 
Mission Hospital. — Some Patients 
I Have Had - - - - 187 

X. Medical Education in China. — Mis- 
sion Medical Schools - - - 213 

XL Canadian Methodist Medical Work 
in West China. — Under the Gen- 
eral Board. — Under the Woman's 
Missionary Society - - - 231 

Xn. Our Present Needs. — An Appeal - 263 

Appendices. 

No. I. Spelling and Pronunciation of 

Names ----- 273 

No. 2. Missionaries and their Stations, 

1910-1911 - - _ - 274 

No. 3. Missionaries under Appointment 

to Sail Autumn, 1910 - - 277 

No. 4. Good Investments - - - 278 

No. 5. Reference Library on Medical 

Missions - - - - - 279 

No. 6. Bibliography - - - - 280 

No. 7. Reference Library on China - 282 



8 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

His Excellency Viceroy Hsi Liang. Frontispiece. 

The Yangtse — the Highway to West China - 26 

One of the many beautiful gorges of the 

upper Yangtse. 
A houseboat on the Yangtse; one of our 
missionary parties aboard. 
The Trackers' Work is Hard - - - - 46 

Human canal-horses pulling a boat up the 
rapids on the upper Yangtse. 
Glimpses of Szechwan — Our West China 

Mission Field ----- 64 

Kiatingfu, West Gate. 
Chengtu, Great East Street. 
Tzeliutsing, River and Idol Temple. 
A village street, sedan chairs emerging. 
The Burden Bearers of China — the Coolies 76 
On the way to consult the Foreign Doctor. 
A Chinese hay wagon. 
Chinese Doctors of Chengtu - - - - 92 

Tan Ko Chiu, one of our most promising 

evangelists. 
Fan Chin Tao, a well-known Chinese doctor 
of Chengtu, at one time physician to 
the Viceroy. 
The Old and the New in Education in West 

China ------- joo 

Old examination cells, Chengtu, now the site 

of modern school buildings. 
Two former students of our Mission School, 
Chengtu, who have studied abroad for 
several years. 
Opium— the Curse of the Land and the People no 
A poppy field. 
Opium smokers. 
Instead of the Poppy, Rice is Grown - - 126 
Among the rice-fields on the " Great Road " 

from Chungking to Chengtu. 
A chain pump, a common method used in 
irrigating the rice-fields. 
The Bound Feet and the Crippled Women of 

China ------- 140 

The tiny silk shoes cover hideous deformity. 
Unable to walk without her slave girl. 

9 



Listfof Illustrations 

PAGE 

One of China's Reforms — the Crusade Against 

footbinding - - - - - - 1 48 

First Annual Meeting of the Anti-Footbind- 

ing Society in Kiating 
A gathering of high-class women in Chengtu 
to listen to an address on footbinding 
by Mrs. Archibald Little— Dr. Retta 
Kilborn as interpreter. 
" China Needs not Gods, but GOD " - - - i6o 
" Eyes have they, but they see not. They 
that make them are like unto them." 
The Hope of China — the Christian Family - 178 

Evangelist Li, wife and children. 
Some of our First Hospital Buildings - - 194 
Old Hospital, Chengtu, 1896, Women's Ward. 
Old Hospital, 1896, Men's Ward. 
Ruins of first Hospital, Chengtu, after Riots 

of 1895. 
Hospital, Kiating. 
Mrs. Du and a Little Girl Friend - - - 208 

" Whereas I was blind, now I see." 
A Notable Gathering of Educationists - - 218 
Drs. Burton and Chamberlain of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, together with several 
Chengtu missionaries, entertained by the 
Treasurer and the Commissioner of Edu- 
cation of the Province of Szechwan. 
Some Hospital Patients ----- 232 

A leper. 

Waiting their turn. 
Dr. David Stevenson and patient. 
Canadian Methodist Hospitals, West China - 238 
The new Hospital, Chengtu. 
A glimpse of the Hospital at Chungking. 
Medical Missionaries under the General Board 248 

Medical Work of the Woman's Missionary 

Society - ______ 252 

Miss Wellwood and two Chinese Nurses in 

training. 
**' We've had our feet unbound ; when they're 
better, we can run." 
Two Pioneer Medical Missionaries - - - 266 
Drs. O. L. and Retta Kilborn usually work 
together in the operating room. 
10 



INTRODUCTION 



" It is also freely acknowledged that in America there 
are already three times as many physicians and twice as 
many medical schools as there is need for. Grist after 
grist of doctors — ^more than 5,000 a year — are turned 
loose on this country, where the majority stay, either 
to eke out an existence or practice because the vocation 
is pecuniarily more profitable or socially more congenial 
than other callings. 

"And is it not also true that in some of our mag- 
nificent hospitals the wounds of the relatively few are 
not only scientifically treated, but in addition elegantly 
dressed, ' to secure primary healing,' while the un- 
washed, untouched sores of the untold multitude in 
heathen lands are left to suppurate, to mortify, and to 
kill? New York city alone has ten thousand hospital 
beds, costing upward of a million dollars a year — more 
beds and more money for the sick among two millions 
than are used and spent for the relief of the sick by all 
the medical missions that exist among a thousand mil- 
lions of heathen and Mohammedans. — W. J. Wanless, 
M.D. 



INTRODUCTION 



[ 



Dr. O. L. Kilborn's book, as its title, " Heal 
the Sick," may be taken to imply, deals with 
the subject from both the general and the par- 
ticular standpoints. I have had only a limited 
opportunity of judging medical missions in 
China, apart from our own Canadian Methodist 
Mission. I had occasion, however, to observe 
the great need of such work in West China. 
Travelling for months, two years ago, through 
the interior provinces of Yunnan and Sze- 
chwan, I passed through scores of towns and 
villages, and even large cities, where absolutely 
no provision for medical care, according to the 
standards of Western health, was made. At one 
time, in my overland tour, I was more than twenty 
days' travel away from the nearest doctor. Every 
day we passed through scenes of revolting insani- 
tation, and by many instances of most repulsive 
diseases among the people on the streets. We 
rubbed elbows with smallpox patients, and passed 
close to lepers. We found scarlet fever and other 
serious epidemics utterly unprovided for, save 
by the superstitious incantations of Buddhist 
priests, or the quackery of Chinese medicine men ; 

13 



Introduction 

while the opium reforms, fostered by government 
prohibition, were made ineffective by the lack of 
proper medical treatment, except where medical 
missions exist. 

In West China there is a constituency of over 
one hundred millions of people, among the most 
responsive to modern progress in the Chinese 
Empire, and destined to wield an enormous influ- 
ence upon the future civilization of central Asia ; 
and among this vast population there are at the 
present time about half a dozen small hospitals 
and about fifteen medical men all told. I do not 
think that there is anywhere in the world a better 
field for medical work from the purely profes- 
sional point of view. When to this is added a 
recognition of medical missions as a means of 
evangelizing such a people, the opportunity 
becomes commanding upon the sympathies of 
Christian people, and an unanswerable argument 
for the reinforcement of the medical missionaries, 
and for the provision of adequate hospital plant. 
Nothing impresses me more than the appeal of 
Dr. Kilborn for the establishment of a Medical 
College in Chengtu, the capital centre of West 
China. To train a force of hundreds of Christian 
Chinese medical men, Whose aim will be to intro- 
duce Christian standards into the home life, and 
into the future government medical institutions 
of that country, would appear to be one of the 

14 



Introduction 

noblest objects of missionary enterprise at the 
present time. I would most heartily commend 
this project to the co-operation of those who may 
have an opportunity to assist in its accomplish- 
ment. 

It is exceedingly timely that Dr. Kilborn's book 
has been presented at this time, when the spirit of 
missionary coHDperation at home is so manifest 
in the Laymen's Missionary Movement, and in 
the Young People's Missionary Movement, and 
when the spirit of enquiry as to Western science 
and reliigion is so strong in the Chinese nation. 
No one within my acquaintance of many mission 
fie'ld's is more competent to present a statement 
of Medical Missions than Dr. O. L. Kilbom, who 
has given nineteen years of missionary service in 
West China, and w^ho has served in medical mis- 
sionary practice, in educational work, in evange- 
listic work and has been in touch with the great 
missionary movements. Dr. Kilbom was a dele- 
gate to the Centenary Missionary Conference in 
Shanghai, and to the World Missionary Confer- 
ence in Edinburgh. His book will be valuable to 
those who are interested in the mission of which 
he is a mem'ber, as well as to those who are 
friends of misions at large. 

T. E. Eger'Ton Shore. 

Toronto, November ist, 1910. 

15 



" * When China moves she will move the world/ 
and China has begun to move. 

" China has been one of the great nations of the 
earth, and this century is likely to witness a rapid rise 
to her former position and influence. What is that 
influence to be? In what direction is it to be exerted? 
Shall it be for righteousness? 

" Then must every Christian nation, church and 
individual the wide world over be made to realize our 
present unique opportunity, and therefore our heavy 
responsibility, for giving the Gospel to the Chinese, 
and for giving it now." 



PREFACE 



China has one-quarter of the world's popula- 
tion. More than four hundred millions of intelli- 
gent, active men, women and children are in this 
twentieth century without the Gospel and with- 
out scientific medical treatment. The Chinese 
are idolatrous, they are full of superstition and 
ignorance, they lack all knowledge of the com- 
mon principles of hygiene, they know practically 
nothing of the importance of cleanliness of the 
person and of the home in relation to the causa- 
tion of disease. Contagion is recognized, but 
contagious diseases are not isolated. Smallpox 
and cholera, tuberculosis and typhus, work fear- 
ful ravages. 

Doctors there are, in abundance, and drugs 
and drug stores; but it is a question whether 
Chinese doctors and drugs do not work more 
harm than good, whether the people would not 
suffer less, and the mortality be actually reduced, 
if all their doctors and drugs could be suddenly 
and wholly banished from their midst. 

No one knows the rate of mortality in China. 
I believe it to be two or three times as great as 
2 17 



Preface 

that in Christian lands. If the rate of infant 
mortality alone in China could be known, the 
■figures would appal the complacent peoples of 
the West. 

The long-drawn, never-ending cry of physical 
suflfering, and of the hopeless misery of spiritual 
darkness, rising from the millions of stricken 
men, helpless women, and perishing children of 
China, is beginning to reach the ear of the Chris- 
tian Church; while at the same time the wise 
and loving example of the Christ-man in preach- 
ing, teaching and healing points the way to 
quickest and surest relief. Too long have the 
churches and missionary societies ignored or 
neglected the powerful " medical arm " of Chris- 
tian Missions. 

Now, in the great task of winning the Chinese 
nation to the Lord Jesus Christ, if a deeper 
sense of the value of the hospital and of the 
medical missionary be borne in upon the Secre- 
taries and other officers of the Mission Boards 
having work in that land, and if upon more of 
the young men and women now in our medical 
colleges there comes the high call to service there, 
my little book will not have been written in vain. 



O. L. KiLBORN. 



Toronto, November i, 191 o. 
18 



THE SCOPE OF THE MEDICAL MISSION. 

MEDICAL MISSION WORK BY 

LAYMEN 



"The work of the medical missionary is many-sided. 
It is not bisected into two parts designated as spiritual 
and medical. Like the shield, it has two sides, but it is 
a whole — a spiritual whole." — J, Rutter Williamson. 

"Is it conceivable that men of range and force and 
widening horizons in all other activities will stand 
hesitant and nervous when they face the problem of the 
world's ignorance and sorrow and wrong? Shall the 
greed for material gain, or the lust for doing things that 
are big, impel men to self-sacrifice and bold adventure; 
and shall not the compulsion of duty, and the heroism 
of faith and the impulse of love make those same men 
yearn beyond the sky-line of their own parish, when the 
matter in hand is not mere things at all, but the 
spiritual and moral and intellectual emancipation of 
many millions of their fellow-men? — Toronto Globe. 



Heal the Sick. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE SCOPE OF THE MEDICAL MISSION.— 

MEDICAL MISSION WORK BY 

LAYMEN. 

The Scope of the Medicai. Mission. 

" We are about to open a very difficult Mis- The medical 
sion. Let us send a medical man along, j^g missionary, 
will help break down prejudice; he will placate 
the savages, and so prepare the way for the 
missionary (i.e., of course, the minister) who 
will preach the Gospel to them." This was the 
conception held by the ancients of fifty years 
ago or less, of the medical man in the mission 
1 field. He was not, strictly speaking, a mission- 
ary at all; for was he not merely a layman? 
I heard of a medical man sent to China by a 
missionary society some years ago, who was 
regarded in this light, and whose moral char- 
acter had not been specially looked into when 
ftit was appointed. His conduct speedily proved 
fto be such a reproach to the organization under 
which he was working that he had to be recalled. 
Fortunately this is a rare experience in the his- 
tory of medical missions in China or any other 
country. Nowadays the medical man is regarded 
as a medical missionary. Not only must his 
moral character be above reproach, for this is 

21 



Heal the Sick 



Medical 
work an 
invaluable 
pioneer 
agency. 



only the negative side of his qualifications, but 
he must be a positive type of consecrated mis- 
sionary, thoroughly evangelistic in tone and aim. 
I shall, however, deal at length with his qualifi- 
cations elsewhere. 

What about the premise laid down above, 
which implies that the medical mission is a 
pioneer agency only? Granted that the doctor 
is a missionary, is his work not accomplished, as 
soon as the way is freely open for the direct 
preaching of the Gospel ? Should we not regard 
our mission dispensaries and hospitals as tem- 
porary forms of work, to be withdrawn when 
they have accomplished a special task? 

It is no longer necessary to present formal 
arguments to prove the great value of the med- 
ical mission as a pioneer agency. That value is 
acknowledged by all. Again and again, through 
the agency of the Medical Mission, has prejudice 
been broken down, suspicion overcome, and what 
have been closed doors freely thrown open to all 
other forms of missionary effort. The medical 
missionary gains access to homes that are 
closed to other workers. He is called by all 
classes, rich and poor, high and low, and all 
classes come to the dispensary for consultation 
and medicine. He is able to make acquaintances 
and to gain friends, real friends, especially 
among the more educated and more progressive 
Chinese. I believe he should make friends 
among the people to whom he is sent. I have 
found some rare good men in West China, men 



22 



The] Scope of the Medical Mission 

of character, with high ideals both for themselves 
and for their nation, men who have not yet come 
into touch with Christian truth, but who have 
taken the best from the religions of China. It is 
an advantage to meet such men. They are not 
easily won for Christ, but when won they are 
valuable, and as friends, non-Christian though 
they be, they are helpful, often exceedingly so. 

The opportunities afforded in the dispensary, The oppor- 
in the waiting-room, and in the hospital ward for afforded in 
the direct teaching of the Gospel are highly the dispen- 
valued. Only a small percentage of the P^-tients ^*^.^ 
are entirely won for Christ while in the hospital ; 
they do not remain long enough. But their 
friendship and good-will are won, and much 
work of Gospel seed-sowing, which in many 
instances bears fruit later on, is done. 

After all, it is the good accomplished that The patients 
tells. The patients in the hospitals are ^^^^h' ^^i^^^I 
treated. Many get treatment and board free, ance. 
although we aim to have even the very poorest 
give at least a few cents towards the latter; 
a large number pay their board, and nothing, 
or only a nominal sum, for their treatment an^ 
medicine; the very few pay respectable fees tor 
medical services, at least their fees are respect- 
able from a Chinese point of view. These 
things greatly influence the Chinese, as they 
have a high regard for benevolence. 

Th-e medical missionary is able to relieve pain, Medical 
to prolong and in many cases to save life. This ^y^^^"^ 
is often very evident to the patients themselves, action. 

23 



Heal the Sick 

and is a message which the most ignorant and 
the most prejudiced Chinese can understand at 
once, even though no word be spoken. It is 
understood and remembered, and taken home. 
Medical mission work has been very aptly styled 
" Love in Action." It is the Gospel of love 
practically illustrated. And herein lies the ele- 
ment of permanence in medical mission work, 
quite apart from its benevolence and its oppor- 
tunities for the direct teaching of the Gospel. 
The hospital The ministerial missionary proclaims from the 
thHtacr^P^^P^^ the love of God for man, manifested in 
the great sacrifice of His Son Jesus Christ our 
Saviour. The message is not always under- 
stood. The messenger speaks in a strange tongue, 
and is hampered by lack of terms in expressing 
his meaning accurately in the Chinese language. 
He attempts to convey spiritual conceptions, for 
which he can find no words in Chinese to express 
the exact meaning. Just across the street, how- 
ever, or perhaps in the same compound with 
the church, is the mission hospital, where every 
week a practical illustration of the same message 
is being given upon the bodies of scores and 
hundreds of Chinese. The hospital is comple- 
mentary to the church. 
Medical Here then is an emphatic and convincing claim 

^^ntegral ^^ ^he part of the medical mission. Not only is it 
part of the a pioneer agency, not only is it the means of 
propaganda, breaking down prejudice and of opening closed 
doors, but it is also mudh jnore, it is an integral 

24 



The Scope of the Medical Mission 

part of the Christian propaganda. In a country 
presenting such conditions as China, it is an 
essential arm of the Christian service, vitally 
necessary to the clear, full presentation of the 
Gospel message. Our mission dispensaries and 
hospitals are not temporary, but permanent forms 
of work, and the work of the medical mission- 
ary will probably continue as long as that of 
any other class of missionary work in China. 

There is another very important function of care of tne 
the medical missionary which none can afford health of 
to neglect, that of caring for the health of his 
fellow missionaries. In our mission, this duty 
has been taken for granted from the beginning 
of our work in China ; and this policy has been 
to a large degree responsible, I believe, for the 
comparatively good health of our missionaries, 
and for the fewness of the breakdowns which 
we have had to regret. The policy of placing 
individual missionaries, or even single families, 
in remote stations without the companionship 
of people of their own race, but especially with- 
out the advantage of qualified medical attend- 
ance, I believe to be very poor economy, — not 
to speak of the hardship often entailed. Sick- 
ness comes, work is interrupted, and uncertainty 
and anxiety, as much as the illness itself, wear 
the family out. Symptoms are not understood, 
a trifling illness is magnified in imagination into 
a serious one, or a serious illness is considered 
a trifling one, and through injudicious home 

25 



Heal the Sick 



Medical 

equipment 

of every 

central 

station 

necessary. 



treatment or neglect, proves fatal; this would, 
under other circumstances, be reprehensible. 
This is no reflection whatever upon those brave 
souls who, placing themselves in the Almighty 
Father's hands, are ready for any work and for 
any station, even the most remote and lonely, so 
long as they may be permitted to carry the banner 
of the Cross to some needy corner of China. 
But it argues a poor use of the good judgment 
which God has bestowed upon those who are 
in authority in the missionary society who 
permit such sacrifice. On the part of the mis- 
sionaries, it is true heroism; on the part of 
the mission boards, it is false economy. I am 
firmly convinced that it costs less to send out 
medical missionaries and establish hospitals, than 
to pay the funeral expenses of missionaries! 
The missionary to China is an expensive agent. 
There are outfit allowances, travelling expenses 
across the seas, and into the interior where his 
work lies, salary for the first two years while 
he is studying the language, furlough travelling 
expenses, and other incidentals. It pays, from 
a business point of view, to take good care of 
him. 

All this is only one strong argument in favor 
of sending out medical missionaries to China 
by every missionary society carrying on work 
there. Every central station should have a 
doctor and a hospital. In centres worked by 
more than one society, unless the city is very 

26 



^ ^ 








■t ■<i^L 


^ 




THE YANGTSE— THE HIGHWAY TO WEST CHINA. 

One of the many beautiful gorges of the upper Yangtse. 
A houseboat on the Yangtse; one of our missionary parties 

aboard. 



The Scope of the Medical Mission 

large, it would be better not to duplicate this 
branch of work; at any rate, not until all cen- 
tres which are without medical work are sup- 
plied. 

Neighboring missions in West China have lost Valuable 
several of their members under distressing cir- ^^^^ ®^ ' 
cumstances. A bright, promising missionary, in 
a station where there was no medical man, was 
taken suddenly ill. The nearest doctor, whose 
station was several days distant, was sent for; 
although he started at once, and made his way 
as rapidly as possible, the sick man was gone 
before the doctor reached him. True, the result 
might have been the same if the doctor had been 
in attendance from the beginning; or it might 
not! Sad, sad, that he could not have been 
given the advantage of medical attendance. 

There was a precisely similar case which I 
call to mind, only that this time it was a bright 
little boy of about three years. He was taken 
ill and the doctor was sent for in haste. But 
two or three days were required for the mes- 
senger to go and the doctor to return. When 
the latter arrived, the little fellow had already 
succumbed. 

Such cases might easily be multiplied.^ The 
lesson is plain, more medical missionaries are 
required by all societies for the work in China, 
both for the great work of giving the Gospel to 
the Chinese, and of caring for the health of their 
fellow missionaries. 



Heal the Sick 



Medical 
training of 
Christian 
natives. 



The 

amateur 
medical 
missionary. 



There is still one more function of the medical 
missionary, which, although late in being recog- 
nized, is of vital importance to the great cause 
of missions in China: I refer to his duty to 
multiply himself, by teaching the science of 
medicine to young Chinese Christians in Mis- 
sion Medical Colleges. But this subject must 
be left for fuller treatment in another chapter. 

MedicaIv Mission Work by Laymen. 

By this term I mean the treatment of disease 
on the mission field by men or women mission- 
aries who are not fully qualified medical doctors. 
Some missionary societies, that send out few 
or no medical missionaries, make a practice of 
giving some of their ministerial missionaries one 
or perhaps two years in a " medical training 
school," in order to fit them to do a certain 
amount of medical work in China. In so far 
as such training enables these missionaries to 
take care of their own health, it is good. Further- 
more, if such missionaries are stationed in a 
city where there is no medical missionary belong- 
ing to either their own or to any other society, 
a little amateur medical work may prove very 
helpful, especially if the work is new, the station 
recently opened, and much prejudice to be over- 
come. Quinine in malaria ; santonine for worms ; 
carbolic oil for lotion followed by simple boracic 
dressing for cleaning ulcers ; sulphur ointment for 
itch; epsom salts for many digestive disturb- 

2S 



Medical Mission Work by Laymen 

ances — these and other simple and well-known 

remedies for common affections may be and are 

used with admirable results, both in giving good 

health to the patients' bodies and in clearing 

away cobwebs of suspicion and dislike from 

their minds. 

But there are conditions to be observed! The The 

amateur practitioner must be endowed with an ®J ^he" 

extra supply of common sense and good judg- amateur 

ment and must err always on the side of caution. ^f?^^^}„,„ 
■^ missionary. 

If the case is a serious one, but especially if 
he is in doubt as to diagnosis, he should leave it 
entirely alone. He can better afford to decline 
treatment altogether in many cases than to have 
adverse results in one. Here is where his well- 
balanced judgment must come in to distinguish 
those cases which he should leave alone. Bad 
results in one case will work more harm to the 
cause than good results in a score. 

Yet most commendable and successful amateur xhe doubtful 
medical work, resulting in access gained to good , 
families that would not otherwise have comefjQjn 
under the Gospel message, and in friendly f eel- wnateur 
ings on the part of the general public, where 
nothing but the most bitter animosity had been 
previously shown, has been carried on by mission- 
aries in West China. Thus hearers were gained 
in the chapel, then believers, and later com- 
municants. 

On the other hand, I have known of non- 
medical missionaries who became so confident 
in their powers of healing as to attempt a surgi- 

29 



Heal the Sick 



When an 

amateur 

medical 

missionary 

should 

"stop 

doctoring." 



cal operation on a knee-joint, with disastrous 
results to the knee. Providentially there were in 
this case no serious after-effects to either the 
missionaries or their position in the Chinese 
community. Harm has undoubtedly been done 
to mission work in general, by injudicious 
amateur medical work. But so far as West China 
is concerned, I believe the instances are few. 
This is a credit to the good sense of those who 
have attempted- such work. 

One of the safest outlets for the energy of the 
amateur medical missionary is the opium refuge. 
These have been estabHshed in many places 
by either men or women, and have been the 
means of helping many poor victims of opium to 
be rid of the habit. In this treatment simple 
remedies usually suffice, and there is little or no 
danger to life in the process. The patients are 
kept in the refuge for two or three weeks, and 
at the end of that time are found to have put 
on flesh, and to be feeling well and strong once 
more, a great contrast to their condition when 
they entered. They are always grateful, and 
some of the best -Chinese preachers learned for 
the first time of the Gospel of salvation through 
Jesus Christ in an opium refuge. 

I laid it down above that amateur medical 
work should be attempted only in the absence 
of a properly qualified medical missionary. The 
natural corollary is that just as soon as a fully 
qualified medical missionary of his own or of 



30 



Medical Mission Work by Laymen 

another society arrives in his station, the amateur 
should devote his energies wholly to his special 
line of work, no longer attempting medical work. 
The reasons are obvious. 

On the whole I am convinced it would be wiser A 
for the missionary society that can afford to give j^^fj^^j^fng 
certain of its missionaries one or two years in a of medical 
training school, and thus fit them to do amateur missionaries, 
medical work, to spend more money and time 
on a few selected candidates, give them a full 
four or five years' course in a reputable medical 
college, until they have passed all the examina- 
tions and taken their degrees; then supply them 
with a reasonable outfit of drugs and instru- 
ments, give each hospital with twenty or thirty 
beds, and thus reap all the advantages of 
orthodox medical mission work. 

No society carrying on mission work in China, Medical 

which can find suitable men, can afford in this "^?^^°°*"^^ 

and 
day and age to do without well-equipped hospi- hospitals a 

tals, with fully qualified and competent medi- °®^^^^^^y 
cal missionaries in charge. A full, well-rounded missionary 
expression of the Gospel message requires medi- ?^^JPJ?®°* 
cal mission work; the health of his fellow mis- 
sionaries demands the presence of the qualified 
doctor, if not in the same station, at least within 
easy reach. The results, — prejudice overcome, 
confidence gained, friendships formed, men and 
women won for the Lord Jesus Christ, — more 
than justify all the expenditure of time, money, 
and labor. 

31 



THE MEDICAL MISSIONARY, HIS 

QUALIFICATIONS AND 

PREPARATION. 

THE MEDICAL MISSIONARY AND 
THE CHINESE LANGUAGE. 



"The first thing that a missionary should acquire is 
the language; that is fundamental. He must get it in 
order to succeed in his great work." — Dr. Humphrey. 

" The ideal medical mission is the one which pre- 
serves an even balance between the two phases of its 
work — healing the sick and preaching the Gospel. He 
is the best medical missionary who comes nearest to the 
pattern of Christ, and turns with equal zeal and enthu- 
siasm for thorough work from diseases of the body to 
the needs of the soul." — A. S. Wilson, M.D 

" As an auxiliary to so-called direct mission work, the 
medical arm has been proved to be second to none in 
its efficiency in advancing Christianity in China. What- 
ever may be its value in other countries, in China it has 
no rival or equal. It is the one visible fruit of Christ- 
ianity and an evidence of good which the Chinese first 
notice, towering above everything else, and so readily 
commends the religion to their attention and considera- 
tion." — Dr. Henry Whitney, Foochow. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE MEDICAL MISSIONARY, HIS QUALIFICA- 
TIONS AND PREPARATION.— THE MED- 
ICAL MISSIONARY AND THE 
CHINESE LANGUAGE. 

Thej Medicai. Missionary, His Qualii^ications 
AND Pre:paration. 

The first qualification for the medical, as for The first 
every other kind of missionary, is a deep experi- qualification 
ence of the saving grace of our Lord Jesus missionary. 
Christ, together with a firm conviction of the 
eternal truths of the Gospel. These must have 
already borne fruit in the character and conduct 
of the candidate, fruit that is evident to all who 
have come in contact with him. He must be a 
man of prayer and of Bible study, one whose 
words have been used for the winning of others 
to Christ, and whose daily life has been even a 
greater power than his words in winning men. 
He may not be gifted as a preacher, but he must 
have ability as an exhorter and as a leader in 
worship, and he must have had experience in 
exercising that ability. The higher his prelimin- 
ary education the better. If he can take the 
full arts course before his medical course, he 
will, other things being equal, have the great 

35 



Heal the Sick 



"A sound 
mind in a 
sound 
body." 



The "science 
of getting 
along with 
men." 



advantage of the broader and deeper founda- 
tion afforded, and will get more out of his 
medical course because of his trained habits of 
thought and study. 

Another and a most important qualification is 
a sound mind in a sound body. He does not 
require an athletic training, but he does need a 
good digestion ; he may not be an expert gymnast, 
but he must be able to sleep well. The man who 
has learned to take care of his body, and to 
avoid excess in work, in recreation, and in eating, 
is more likely to give forty years of service in 
China than the man who " can do anything," or 
" can eat anything," or who will work early and 
late seven days a week and " not be hurt " by it. 
In a word, the man who will do the best work 
and whom God will use on the mission field for 
the longest time, is the man who will not act 
as if he were made of different stuff from other 
men, but will take counsel of the common sense 
and good judgment God has given him and will 
act accordingly. 

There is one other qualification which I would 
urge as of first importance; it has been aptly 
called the " Science of Getting along with Men." 
In the very circumstances of the case, we are 
obliged to live very close together on the mis- 
sion field. I mean this both literally and figur- 
atively. Not more than three or four and some- 
times only two families are appointed to live in 
one station, i.e., in each Chinese city occupied. 

36 



The Medical Missionary 

The mission compounds are necessarily adjacent, 
and angularities or peculiarities of disposition 
are apt to loom large in the eyes and minds of 
near neighbors. Unless the missionary is watch- 
ful and prayerful, and careful of his own weak- 
nesses, the faults of his brother missionary will 
look big, and a spirit of censoriousness and of 
bitterness may be aroused. Then we are also 
closely associated in the work, just as we are in 
living. Unless we have considered all this, and 
have with the help of God made a strong effort 
to avoid this undesirable spirit of censoriousness 
and bitterness, the Evil One will have us in his 
grasp before we know it. Nothing is so inimical 
to successful work in the mission field as fric- 
tion between the workers. Therefore the intend- 
ing missionary, whether medical or otherwise, 
should seriously consider whether he has this 
qualification of " getting along with men," and 
if not, take immediate steps to perfect himself 
in this very important " science." As he will 
have to use it on the mission field, he should 
begin to practise it at home. He must remember 
that no man, not even himself, is free from 
faults, just because he has become a missionary. 
He must be ready to admit just as good motives 
on the part of his brother missionary as he 
claims for himself. We must be much in prayer Much 
for the mind of the Master, the spirit of "bear Player 
and forbear," the spirit of forgiveness, and of 
helpfulness to all. 

37 



Heal the Sick 



What the 
medical 
missionary 
is not. 



Thorough 

preparation 

imperative. 



The medical missionary is not a man or a 
woman who has a smattering of medical know- 
ledge "good enough for the heathen." In the 
days gone by, before the recognition of the 
medical as a legitimate form of work, a year 
with a doctor or in a medical college may have 
been a useful preparation for foreign mission 
work. But nowadays, it is universally acknow- 
ledged that nothing short of the best in medical 
training is good enough for the medical mis- 
sionary. 

The reason for this is clear; the medical mis- 
sionary is usually the only medical man in the 
station; whether it be in the treatment of his 
fellow missionaries, or in the most difficult or 
puzzling case among his Chinese patients, he can 
have no consultant. He must diagnose and pre- 
scribe, he must decide when an operation is 
necessary, and he must perform the operation 
unassisted; he must treat the eye, ear, nose and 
throat, and all manner of skin diseases, for 
there is no specialist whom he can call in to 
help; he must, in a word, be his own specialist 
in everything. He may or may not have a foreign 
nurse to help him in caring for his patients, 
or he may have no other nurses than the Chinese 
young men whom he himself has taught and 
trained, — so far as they are taught and trained. 
If the missionary's wife should happen to be a 
trained nurse or a medical missionary, then he 

38 



i 



The Medical Missionary 

is indeed fortunate, for she will be his " right 
hand man " in consultation, in giving anesthetics, 
in preparation of bandages, dressing materials, 
etc., and in teaching his assistants and nurses. 

For all these reasons, therefore. I maintain 
that every medical missionary, man or woman, 
should have had a full course in a good medical 
college and should have taken his degree. If he 
has passed the examinations and received a 
diploma licensing him to practise medicine in 
one or more provinces or states of his native 
land, it would be better still, though not so neces- 
sary. His self-respect will be all the greater, and 
if he should be so unfortunate as to be unable to 
stand the climate in China, and have to return 
home, he could at once proceed to practise. p^g^. 

Should the intending medical missionary take graduate 
a post-graduate course? If so, where, and of before 
what character? Much depends upon his age. go^^S fo 
For language reasons he should be on the field 
in China on or before his thirtieth birthday. 
If a post-graduate course will put him past that 
date before he can reach the field, I believe he 
should forego it and get to the field at once. 
But the candidate's finances may not admit of 
a post-graduate course, what then? He should 
not take it. but should come to China and look 
forward to at least three months in post-graduate 
work during first furlough. Such a man will 
not be the first, by any means, to go to a foreign 

39 



Heal the Sick 



What a 

medical 

missionary 

to China 

should 

specialize 

in. 



field without having had the advantage of a 
post-graduate course, nor will he be the last. 

But if both age and finances are favorable, 
I believe the intending medical missionary should 
by all means take a year in his own or some other 
country, or in both, in post-graduate work. If he 
can secure the position of house-surgeon in a 
large hospital for one year, he will have a splen- 
did opportunity to gain a wide and varied experi- 
ence in all the different branches of medicine 
and surgery. Just after the completion of his 
year in the hospital, he might profitably add a 
few months at one of the large surgical clinics 
in Canada, the United States, or Great Britain. 

If he is a candidate for China, he should, 
during his post-graduate course, pay special 
attention to general surgery, to the eye, and to 
skin diseases. He cannot see too many opera- 
tions in surgery, or of too great a variety. He 
should pay special attention to details of tech- 
nique, sutures and ligatures, material and prepara- 
tion, bandages and dressings, methods of prepara- 
tion, sterilizing, keeping and handling. Minute 
details of operations should be noted and remem- 
bered. As to eye work, if a special course of 
lectures is available, by all means let him take it. 
But he should at the same time read and 
thoroughly master at least one small text-book 
on eye diseases, and contrive to see as many of 
the common operations on the eye as possible. 
Skin diseases are very numerous in China, and 



40 



The Medical Missionary 

are often seen in extreme conditions rarely met 
with in the home lands. These conditions result 
from lack of intelligent treatment, and also from 
lack of cleanliness. A special course of lectures 
on skin diseases, or at least a few weeks of 
regular attendance on a good skin clinic, would 
prove of great advantage. 

Should the medical missionary take the course Is a 
in theology? Under ordinary circumstances, i^o ' c««rse^^^* 
He is not at all likely to have charge of a church advisable 
on the mission field, but of a hospital. The extra ^g^^^j 
time at his disposal might better be spent in missionary? 
post-graduate work in some branch of medicine, 
so that he may be thoroughly well-fitted for what 
is to be his specialty for life — medical mission 
work. There are circumstances which may 
justify the intending medical missionary in tak- 
ing a theological course. He may have gradu- 
ated young, too young to go to the field, even 
after having taken a year or more in post-gradu- 
ate work. He may then take the theological 
course, in whole or in part, and proceed to ordina- 
tion and to full connection, as soon as he has 
fulfilled all the conditions. There are those, 
too, who feel the importance of ordination and 
of full connection in one of the Conferences, 
that they may have equal standing in the church 
with any and all their fellow-workers in the 
mission field. The chief consideration is the 
time required ; all others are secondary for the 
medical missionary. 

41 



Heal the Sick 

The library The medical missionary should have a small 
medical library of good medical text-books. He ought 

missionary, probably to take with him all the books that he 
has used during his college course. If finances 
allow, he might add a few others, especially 
those of late issue. But he need not think it 
necessary to invest in a number of many-volumed 
'* systems," some of which, at any rate, will 
be out of date before he has much more than 
begun to use them. Leather bindings are a need- 
less expense ; they mould more rapidly than cloth, 
and books in leather go out of date just as fast 
as any others. 
The faculty '^be faculty of adaptability is an exceedingly 

of valuable one for the medical missionary. By this 

adaptability. ^ , . . , ,. ... , , 

I mean somethmg of that quality which enables 

the man, who has studied medicine in a magni- 
ficent n€w college building, who has taken 
his hospital practice in a well-equipped, up-to- 
date hospital of three or four hundred beds, who 
is accustomed to every convenience — nurses, 
orderlies, steam sterilizers, electric light, etc. — ^it 
is this quality, I say, so invaluable in the mission 
Beginning field, which enables such a man to begin his 
work^^on medical work for the Chinese in one, small, dark 
the field. room, 12x15, with no assistant other than a young 
Chinese who knows nothing whatever about the 
work, and which enables him to continue his 
medical work there until he can get another 
room. Both these rooms are probably located in 

42 



The Medical Missionary 

the Chinese compound in which he and his family 
live. His drugs and instruments which he has 
ordered from the home land, and which likely as 
not have been dipped in the Yangtse water on 
their way up that great river, are contained in 
a few small packing-cases. He keeps right on 
at his work and enjoys it; relieves pain, pro- 
longs or saves life, wins the confidence of these 
strange people, while they in their turn win the 
love of the mis'sionary. He, with his own hands, 
washes and dresses their foul sores, prescribes 
and mixes their, medicine, performs operations, 
and nurses the few patients he is able to take 
into a third room in his compound. Presently 
as the funds come along from the homeland, he 
is deep in the intricacies of negotiations for a 
site for a hospital. It takes months, or perhaps 
a year, before the coveted piece of land is actu- 
ally in the possession of the mission. In the 
intervals between seeing crowds of patients in the 
dispensary, he haggles with the brick merchant, 
or with the lime merchant, or again with the 
timber merchant. To-day he sets to work with 
his own hands to whittle out a wooden leg for 
that poor man whose life he has saved by ampu- 
tating his tubercular foot; now he is overseeing 
carpenters and masons, trying to persuade them 
to be accurate and painstaking in their work; 
and a little later he is making a splint for a 
broken arm. 

43 



Heal the Sick 



Why go to 
China to 
practise 
medicine? 



A Canadian medical man whom I visited in 
his office not long since, expressed himself as 
quite unable to understand why a man should 
go off to China, and to the far interior at that, 
to practise medicine. Of course he could not 
understand, if the practice were all there is to it ! 
No man would go to the interior of China in 
order to make money by practising medicine, he 
could not support himself; nor would he go 
simply for the sake of the medical practice, there 
are too many inconveniences, too much filth, too 
many bad smells, and altogether too many 
repulsive things. 

What, then, can possibly take him there? 
Nothing less than the " vision splendid," the 
joy of service and the beauty of sacrifice, for 
he follows the gleam of the example of the One 
who " went about all the cities and villages, 
teaching . . . and preaching . . . and healing." 
Away beyond the petty and sometimes sordid 
details of the daily routine, he sees redeemed 
men and women, he sees homes reorganized and 
transformed by the constraining love of Jesus 
Christ, he sees a great and growing organization, 
the Christian Church, the aim and influence of 
which is always and everywhere uplifting and 
saving, and finally with the eye of faith, he be- 
holds a great nation which has been permeated 
and rejuvenated by the Christian ideals of justice 
and purity, of love and service. 



44 



\ 



The Missionary and the Language 

The Medical Missionary and the Chinese 
Language. 

Once upon a time, as a prospective China mis- Some good 
sionary was about to set out for the land of his ? 7^*^®~~. __ 
adoption, he was the recipient of a piece of and 
sage advice from one of the officers of our^^^^^'^s. 
church : it was this, " I beHeve you would do 
well to acquire the language ; better not use an 
interpreter too much in your work in West 
China." When I heard of the incident, I was 
reminded of the Mission Board Secretary (not of 
our Church) who advised a missionary setting 
out in the winter for West China, that the Yangtse 
would probably be all frozen over and that he 
should go to a certain coast city to wait for a 
few months before proceeding into the interior. 
Interpreters are about as common in China as 
are icebergs in the Yangtse. 

All missionaries going to West China, both The 
men and women, married or single, learn thej^^^^g^^" 
language. When Mission Board Secretaries and China. 
others visit us there, they are cordially invited 
to address Chinese congregations ; and they do 
so. with satisfaction to themselves, and to the 
edification of the people. The interpreting is 
done by any one of a large number of mis- 
sionaries. 

What about the Chinese language ? Is it hard The 
to learn? How long does it take to learn it?ian^|ge 
Will the Chinese not presently discard their 

45 



Heal the Sick 



Learning 

the 

language. 



ancient cumbrous characters in favor of the 
romanized ? Is not English now being taught 
all over China? And will they not soon ex- 
change their own language for English? These 
are some of the questions one is met with 
in the homeland. 

To begin with the last first. No, the Chinese 
will never exchange their own language for any- 
other. Yes, English is now being taught in the 
Government schools all over China. No, I do 
not believe the Chinese will ever discard their 
ancient and cumbrous, but beautiful characters 
for the more convenient romanized, or if they 
do it will be some centuries hence. Yes, the 
Chinese language is hard to learn in comparison 
with the languages of western peoples. But 
any man or woman of average ability, under 
thirty years of age, who will work faithfully for 
at least two years, can conquer it. And most of 
those who begin well below the thirty years 
limit, acquire a fluent, free use of the language. 
For those who reach China after thirty, the lan- 
guage is always harder, and they find greater 
difficulty in becoming free or fluent. Most mis- 
sionary societies allow their missionaries from 
one to two years for language study, entirely 
unburdened by any other responsibility. But 
all missionaries aim to keep on studying, as time 
and opportunity allow, for at least three to five 
years longer. 

46 




THE TRACKERS' WORK IS HARD. 

Human canal-horses pulling a boat up the rapids on the 
upper Yangtse. 



The Missionary and the Language 

Two languages prevail everywhere in China, The written 
the spoken and the written. The latter is com- f^ng^^gw ^ 
monly called the classical or Wenli (pronounced of China. 
wenlee). This is the language of the Confucian 
classics and of nearly all other books, including 
translations of Western books. It has many 
characters in common with the spoken language, 
but is much more concise, terse and pithy. Many 
of its characters are used in a sense diflferent to 
that of the spoken language. This written or 
hook language, as it is often called, is common 
to all parts of the empire. Chinese in China or 
in any other part of the world read and under- 
stand it. They may pronounce the characters 
very differently in different provinces, and even 
in different parts of the same province; but 
the meanings are the same. Hence the great 
value of the book language. 

The most widely used spoken language of The spoken 
China is commonly called the " Mandarin," ^*°2«age. 
because it is supposed to be used by the mandarins 
or officials everywhere. It is used, with slight 
variations, by about three hundred millions of 
Chinese, and therefore has the right, if any lan- 
guage has that right, to be called the " spoken 
language" of China. The other hundred milHons 
of people speak a number of dialects ; in some 
cases one dialect is used by less than one million 
people, in others tens of millions speak the same 
dialect. The Mandarin language, together with 
these dialects, is being used in book-making to an 

47 



Heal the Sick 



The 

printed 

page. 



Some com- 
parisons of 
dialects. 



ever-increasing extent. The Bible is now printed 
and used almost altogether in the spoken languages 
of China, and many Christian books are being 
steadily added, especially in the Mandarin. The 
Bible and other books, when written in the 
Mandarin or in some one of the dialects, are 
naturally much more readily mastered by the 
foreign missionary, and are more easily under- 
stood by the great majority of our Christians 
than when written in the classical. This use of 
a spoken language, especially of the Mandarin, 
in books, magazines, and newspapers is steadily 
growing in favor among all classes of the people, 
and the outcome will doubtless be the steady 
approximation of the two languages, the simpli- 
fication of the classical and the increased rich- 
ness and dignity of the spoken, until the two 
shall have become one. But this process may 
require a hundred years — a short time in the 
transformation of the language of the most 
numerous people on the face of the earth. 

The spoken language of China, particularly of 
West China, is sonorous and musical. The Can- 
tonese dialect has eight " tones," or inflections, 
of the voice in pronouncing ; the Peking Mandarin 
has four; we in West China have five, narrowed 
in places to four. Our West China tones are 
particularly well marked, giving a decidedly 
musical effect, pleasing to the ear. 

When I went to China in 1891, and during the 
few years following, it was not uncommon to 

48 



The Missionary and the Language 

hear the remark that the medical missionary How the 
could begin work sooner than the ministerial, ^j^^^^ 
because he could " get along " when he had was sup- 
enough of the language to question his P^-tients, ^^^^1^.^^^^ 
and to give them instructions about taking language, 
medicine, etc. A man does not require to be 
versed in the Chinese classics in order to perform 
a surgical operation, nor does he need to be able 
to preach a sermon in Chinese in order to mix 
medicines effectively; hence some doctors were 
thrust into the work as soon, or almost as soon, 
as they reached the field. They were certainly 
expected to learn Chinese, but in the daily rout- 
ine of their work they could pick up all they re- 
quired from the patients. 

I am glad to say that the situation is now The reso- 
entirely changed. The following resolution which ^^g*"^ ^^ ^^^ 
was passed by the great Centenary Conference, Centenary 
meeting in Shanghai in April, 1907, indicates J;°°/^^J^°^^^ 
clearly the present attitude of the general mission- study for 

ary body on this question : " Whereas it is of the "nedical _ 

■' -^ ^ ... missionaries, 

highest importance that the medical missionary 

should have a good knowledge of the Chinese 

language, spoken and written, and should early 

gain some experience of existing mission 

methods ; Resolved, to emphasize the advisability 

of relieving him of all responsible work during 

his first two years in the country; of requiring 

him to pass examinations not less searching, if 

on different lines, than those of his clerical 

colleagues ; and of locating him for a time at 

an established medical centre." 

4 49 



Heal the Sick 

The policy The regulation in force in our own Mission is, 
mis^?on*^re° ^^^^ ^^^ medical missionary, in common with 
language every other class of missionary, shall have two 
y- full years after reaching West China for the 

study of the language; that is, that no other 
responsibility whatsoever shall be put upon him 
for that time. This may seem like a very long 
time to be spent wholly on the study of the 
language. So it is; but when we remember that 
our missionaries go to China to give not one 
term, nor two, but thirty or forty years — or even 
fifty years, if life be spared that long, — of ser- 
vice to God and the Chinese, two years given 
to learning the language at the beginning will 
not be considered excessive. Moreover, no mis- 
sionary confines himself absolutely to the study 
of the language during these two years. He 
learns by the very force of circumstances of the 
habits and customs of the people, of their 
peculiar ways of thinking and of doing things, 
of the point of view of a strange people, lessons 
which are very necessary to his future success. 
'^^® We take the ground that the medical mission- 

places of ary needs to know the Chinese language just as 
the medical thoroue^hly as does any other kind of mission- 
missionary. , 1, ^ • I, r I, u 
ary; he may never be put m charge of a church, 

but he has a congregation and a chapel ready to 
hand every day in the week, — namely, his pati- 
ents in waiting room and ward, or in hospital 
chapel. He must needs preach to them too, 
if he would fulfil all the functions of the medical 
missionary. He cannot afford to leave the evan- 

50 



The Missionary and the Language 

gelistic work of his hospital entirely to his 
Chinese evangelist, be he never so faithful or suc- 
cessful a worker, for the patients always look 
for an example to the foreign missionary doctor 
in charge, and the strongest and best influence 
for Christ will be exerted among them only 
when the foreign doctor takes his share in lead- 
ing meetings, giving addresses, and doing general 
evangelistic work. 

Another important argument for a thorough Winning 
knowledge of the language, both spoken and ^f patieSs 
written, on the part of the medical missionary, through 
is that, other things being equal, the man with ^f ^^ ^® 
such thorough knowledge commands the greater language, 
respect and confidence of his patients. He will, 
therefore, get more patients of all classes, and 
will have better results medically, surgically, and 
spiritually. " Unconscious psychotherapy " 
comes into play, and is a powerful adjuvant to 
all ordinary remedies and methods used by the 
medical missionary who commands the deep con- 
fidence of his patients. The Chinese patient, 
perhaps more than the westerner, is fond of hav- 
ing his condition explained to him. Even though 
the explanation is beyond his comprehension, he 
will gather some knowledge from what he hears. 
If the foreign doctor speaks broken Chinese, or 
if he fails from this or any other cause to give 
the patient some idea of his condition, and per- 
haps also of the general principle to be followed 
in the treatment, he undoubtedly and not un- 

51 



Heal the Sick 

naturally often fails to gain his fullest confidence, 
and hence labors under some disadvantage. 

The medical missionary is often called to the 
homes of those high in rank or authority. The 
impression he makes is better, and the confid- 
ence he commands is greater, other things being 
equal, if he speaks Chinese clearly and intelligibly. 

The medical The ability to read Chinese characters, at least 

missionary 

must know ^o the extent required for reading the New Testa- 

the Chinese ment in Chinese, is a necessity for every class 
characters 

of missionary, including the doctor. There are 

many situations also, in which a thorough know- 
ledge of Chinese characters, sufficient to read and 
understand the ordinary classical style, is found 
highly advantageous. This applies to the medi- 
cal missionary as well as to others. For instance, 
should he wish to delve into the voluminous 
medical literature of the Chinese, or for that 
matter, into any of the ancient classical literature, 
he will require to know classical characters. A 
number of medical colleges have already been 
opened by missionary societies, and the teachers 
are medical missionaries. Translations of 
western medical books are being made for these 
colleges; these -are invariably in the classical 
style. To use them, much more to make them, 
the medical missionary must be an expert in 
Chinese characters. For all these reasons, there- 
fore, and for the self-respect of the medical man 
undertaking to give his life for the uplift of the 
Chinese, every medical missionary should have a 
thorough knowledge of the Chinese language. 

52 



CHINESE DRUGS AND DRUG STORES. 

CHINESE ANATOMY AND 

PHYSIOLOGY. 



" China alone could immediately fill the hands of 
200,000 capable practitioners, and all that is true of 
China proper is, with modification and variation, 
true of all the Chinese dependencies — Korea, Mon- 
golia, Thibet and Hainan; also of certain portions 
of Japan, particularly the new dependency, Formosa." 
—W, J, Wanless, M.D. 

"The medical missionary opens the way; but he 
also has unrivalled opportunities for preaching the 
Gospel, and while he carries the lancet in one hand, 
he must ever be ready with the sword of the Spirit 
in the other."— PF. H. Parkes, M.D. 



CHAPTER III. 

chinese drugs and drug stores.— 

chinese anatomy and 

physiology. 

Chinese: Drugs and Drug Stores. 

Drug stores are numerous in China. They are The herb 
found on almost every street in the city, and in- ^'^2 store, 
variably in every town and village. There are 
two kinds, the " Herb Drug Store " and the 
" Official Drug Store." The former is the less 
pretentious. It is small, and the proprietor him- 
self usually goes at intervals into the country to 
collect the bundles of plants which are to be 
seen filling every shelf, and crammed into every 
nook and cranny of his shop. He knows them 
all, of course, together with their medicinal 
virtues. He does a good deal of prescribing, 
and sometimes attains to a degree of fame as 
a doctor. The herbs are taken home, boiled 
together as prescribed, and the resulting liquor 
drunk. 1 r'%it^.' 

The " Official Drug Store " is the more am- The official 
bitious establishment. It has drugs in the whole ^^ stort. 
plant stage, but pays much attention to working 
up drugs into more convenient and into more 
or less classified forms. One sees in such a store 
many drawers full of chopped leaves, stalks 

55 



Heal the Sick 



How the 
medicines 
are used. 



The disas- 
trous use 
of plasters. 



or roots, jars of berries, of other fruits and of 
dried nuts. Some of these things are ground 
to powder. Many pills, powders and potions, 
of varying consistency and color, are exposed 
for sale in great crocks standing in a row on the 
counter. From the ceiling are probably sus- 
pended such things as cast-ofif snake-skins, turtle 
shells, monkey and tiger bones, and deer horns. 
So we see that animal medicines form no incon- 
siderable proportion of the Chinese pharmaco- 
poeia. 

Besides the prevailing custom of boiling the 
ingredients of a prescription and drinking the 
liquor, there are other methods of administra- 
tion. Powders are blown into the nose and 
throat for affections of these parts, eye waters 
are dropped into the eyes, and ointments are 
applied freely to all parts of the body. One of 
the commonest applications is that of plasters. 
Patients frequently come to us decorated with 
two, large, round plasters, one on either temple. 
They are applied to the temples for headache, 
to the back for backache, and to the knees, legs, 
or feet for pains in those parts. 

The worst use they make of these plasters is 
that of application to a boil or other suppurating 
sore or wound. The result is to keep the dis- 
charges, which should be given the freest pos- 
sible exit, pent in; this treatment is often dis- 
astrous to the part aflFected. A young man once 
came to me with a hand, including the fingers, 

56 



Chinese Drugs and Drug Stores 

very much swollen ; it was more than twice the 
ordinary thickness. The skin could hardly be 
seen for the number of black pitch plasters 
firmly stuck on everywhere. One or two, when 
pulled off, revealed discharging sinuses. The 
man was taken into the hospital, and under 
chloroform an operation was performed. The 
plasters were of course discarded, and under 
rational treatment the hand was well in an in- 
credibly short time. The trouble in his case 
had begun from having slightly cut one of his 
fingers on a piece of broken bowl; the black 
pitch plasters had done the rest. As fast as the 
discharges made new openings for themselves, 
big, round plasters were promptly clapped on, 
and everything kept in. 

Deer horn, ground to a powder, is believed to Some 
be a good tonic. But tiger bones are the tonic remedies 
par excellence. The tiger is a very strong ani- and reasons 
mal; his strength lies in his bones; therefore, if ^gg. 
you would be strong, take tiger bones. A pedlar, 
from the province of Yunnan, once visited our 
compound. He had with him for sale two tiger- 
skins, the bones of the fore-leg of a tiger (the 
foot, with claws in situ, was attached as proof), 
and also a lump of " tiger-bone-glue." He car- 
ried with him little scales with which to weigh 
out a portion of the glue or a piece of bone. 
He was ready to saw off any sized piece of bone 
we wished, at a certain price per ounce. The 
bone is soaked in alcohol, and the extract, thus 

57 



Heal the Sick 



The snake 

skin 

industry. 



My visit to 
a wholesale 
drug store 
in Chengtu. 



obtained, taken. Tincture of monkey bones is 
another excellent tonic. It is credited with pro- 
ducing great suppleness of the joints. 

While travelling through the country on one 
occasion, I saw a man standing with a number 
of others, and holding in his hands a snake about 
four or five feet long. He had his snakeship by 
the tail, but presently, after some deft manoeu- 
vring, succeeded in grasping him safely by the 
neck. I stopped long enough to enquire what 
he proposed to do with the snake. " Keep him 
and feed him," was the answer. " But what 
for ?" " In order to sell cast-off snake skins to 
the drug stores." Here was a new industry of 
which I had not before heard. Snake skins, 
when ground to powder and administered either 
in alcohol or water, are believed to be of great 
use in reducing fevers ; so are the cast-off skins 
of many kinds of beetles, and of cicadas. Cicadas 
abound in our part of China, and their cast-off 
skins are a familiar article of commerce. I once 
visited a great wholesale drug establishment in 
Chengtu. Crude drugs from the mountains 
away to the north and west, and even from far- 
off Tibet, were here exposed in large sacks for 
sale. From the top of one sack I picked up and 
examined a bundle of what looked, at a little 
distance, like a package of red lead pencils. 
They were dried centipedes. These form a fre- 
quent ingredient in the prescriptions of the 
Chinese doctors. 



S8 



Chinese Drugs and Drug Stores 

A dispensary patient of mine gave me an a famous 
account of how his life was once marvellously J^^?5^^®^jj^ 
saved by a prescription given him by a famous his dose. 
doctor. It contained two dried centipedes, he 
said, and the whole was taken in one dose, 
according to the usual custom. From his de- 
scription of the awful pains he endured, together 
with certain other well-known symptoms which 
immediately followed the taking of that medicine, 
it was perfectly clear that the man had had a 
narrow escape with his life. But in his mind 
that was a " wonderful prescription," and the 
man who had exposed him to such danger by 
writing it for him was a " famous physician." 

For broken bones the remedy is usually a The Chinese 
medicine to be taken internally. The arm or^jj-oken 
leg, of which the bone is broken, is commonly ^ones. 
encased in a poultice of some sort, either of 
greens or of powdered drugs. I have seen a 
leg put up by a Chinese doctor in a rough splint, 
but this is the exception. I have any amount of 
trouble trying to get a patient to leave bandages 
and splints alone, after I have applied them. I 
well remember a man with a ibroken arm coming 
regularly to the dispensary for some days. He 
invariably had the splint off, which he asked me 
to reapply, but his great want, most pathetically 
expressed, was for medicine to be taken inter- 
nally, of course, " to make the bones knit !" 

59 



Heal the Sick 

A famous A common household remedy with the Chinese, 
"Thousand "^^ bought in the drug stores, is what is called 
feet earth." " thousand feet earth." Which, being inter- 
preted, means earth trampled by (presumably) 
a thousand human feet. This precious medicine 
is found immediately outside or inside a door- 
way, where such luxuries as floors and stepping- 
stones have not yet made their appearance, and 
where neither boots nor even sandals 'have been 
used. On the same principle, I suppose, of get- 
ting the filth concentrated as much as possible, 
another remedy is the ooze from the bottom of 
a gutter! 

Some mineral medicines are known and used. 
There is a preparation of arsenic, the effects of 
which are well known to the people, in common 
use as a caustic or escharotic. It is sometimes 
applied to sores by Chinese doctors, with dis- 
astrous effects. Gentian and rhubarb are brought 
from the mountains in the west, and sold in great 
quantities in the province of Szechwan. The 
ginseng root, on the other hand, is grown in large 
quantity in Canada and the United States, and 
exported to China. Within very recent years, 
foreign drugs and medicines, prepared after the 
fashion of patent medicines, are being sold in 
ever increasing quantities in all the larger centres 
of China. But pure drugs, such as quinine and 
santonine, for instance, are rapidly and justly 
acquiring a great reputation for treatment of 
special conditions. Many other pure drugs can 

60 



Chinese Anatomy and Physiology 

now be bought over the counters of Chinese drug- 
stores in the city of Chengtu. They are im- 
ported from the big wholesale dealers at 
Shanghai, 

Chinese Anatomy and Physioi.ogy. 

T'he Chinese have not yet dissected the human Chinese 
body, but they have done an immense amount of ^^^^^^^e 
theorizing. They have exercised their powers of anatomy, 
of observation much less than their power 
of imagination in describing the struc- 
ture of the human body, its organs, its 
" pulses," and its many mysterious ethers 
or essences which travel up and down the 
several channels. Wylie's " Notes on Chinese 
Literature " contains extended references to fifty- 
nine separate treatises of a medical and physio- 
logical character. These books quote from a far 
greater number of authors, some of whom flour- 
ished in the earliest days of China, and many of 
whose writings exhibit good sense and sound 
advice amid the strangest theories. 

Dr. S. Wells Williams,~in "The Middle King- 
dom," quotes at length from Dr. Harland's 
description of the Chinese ideas of the organiza- 
tion of the body, and the functions of the chief 
viscera. I am indebted to that standard work 
for much of the minute description which follows. 

Chinese physiologists seem to have no idea of The human 

the distinction between venous and arterial blood, ^©^7 

, accordmg to 
nor between muscles and nerves ; they use the the Chinese. 

6i 



Heal the Sick 

same word for both tendons and nerves. Accord- 
ing to these physiologists, the brain is the abode 
of the Yin principle in its perfection, and at its 
base, where there is a reservoir of the marrow, 
communicates through the spine with the whole 
body. The larynx goes through the lungs 
directly to the heart, expanding a little in its 
course, while the pharynx passes over them to 
the stomach. The lungs are white, and placed 
in the thorax ; they consist of six lobes or leaves 
suspended from the spine, four on one side and 
two on the other ; sound proceeds from holes in 
them, and they rule various parts of the body. 
The centre of the thorax (or pit of the stomach) 
is the seat of the breath ; joy and delight emanate 
from it, and it cannot be injured without danger. 
The heart Hes underneath the lungs, and is the 
prince or lord of the body; thoughts proceed 
from it. The pericardium comes from and 
envelops the heart, and extends to the kidneys. 
There are three tubes communicating from the 
heart to the spleen, liver, and kidneys, but no 
clear ideas are held as to their office. Like the 
pharynx, they pass through the diaphragm, which 
is itself connected with the spine, ribs and bowels. 
The liver is on the right side and has seven lobes ; 
the soul resides in it, and schemes emanate from 
it. The gall-bladder is below the liver and pro- 
jects upward into it. When the person is angry 
it ascends ; courage dwells in it, hence the Chinese 
sometimes procure the gall-bladders of animals, 

62 



Chinese Anatomy and Physiology 

such as tigers and bears, and even those of men, 
especially of notorious bandits executed for their 
crimes, and eat the bile contained in them, under 
the idea that it will impart courage. Apropos of An incident 
this statement of the Chinese notion that the gall- a^^arban^^ 
bladder is the seat of courage, an incident that practice, 
happened a few years ago is well known : The 
former Viceroy of Szechwan, Ts'en Chw'en 
Suen, an intelligent, progressive man, although 
with a reputation for cruelty, was sent to the 
south to put down a serious rising in the province 
of Kwangsi. After a hard campaign the rebels 
were overthrown and their leader captured. 
After the Chinese fashion, this rebel leader, who 
had shown such bravery in the field, was imme- 
diately beheaded. But his execution was fixed at 
such a time and place as suited the convenience 
of the Viceroy, who was present. Immediately 
on the striking off of the head, a cup of blood 
was caught and drunk by the latter, in order to 
give him courage! The horrible incident was 
reported in the foreign press at the time, and 
held up to the world as an illustration of the bar- 
baric beliefs and practices, which still exist in 
China even among her highest officials. 

The spleen lies between the stomach and dia- 
phragm, and assists in digestion ; the food passes 
from it into the stornach, and hence throug*h the 
pylorus into the large intestines. The omentum 
overlies the stomach, but its office is unknown. 
The mesentery and pancreas are entirely omitted. 

63 



Heal the Sick 



Bones and 
the circu- 
lation of 
the blood. 



The nour- 
ishment of 
the body. 



The pulse. 



The small intestines are connected with the heart, 
while the large intestines, which have sixteen 
convolutions, are connected with the lungs and 
lie in the loins. The kidneys are attached to the 
spinal marrow, and resemble an egg in shape. 

The bones and their uses are very imperfectly 
understood, as might be expected because of the 
absence of dissection. The pelvis, skull, fore- 
arm and leg are each considered as a single bone ! 
The joints are quite ignored, and also the con- 
nections of the muscles and ligaments with the 
bones. The irrigation of the body with blood is 
rather complicated, and authors vary greatly as 
to the manner in which it is accomplished. Some 
pictures represent tubes issuing from the fingers 
and toes, and running up the limbs into the trunk, 
where they are lost or reach the heart, lungs, or 
some other organ as well as they can, wandering 
over most parts of the body in their course. 

Theories are furnished in great variety to 
account for the nourishment of the body and the 
functions of the viscera. Upon the harmonious 
connection of these with each other, and with 
the five metals, the colors, the tastes and the 
planets, is founded the well-being of the whole 
system. With all they hold an intimate relation, 
and their actions are alike built on the all-per- 
vading functions of the Yin and Yang, those uni- 
versal solvents in Chinese philosophy. 

The pulse is very carefully studied, and its con- 
dition regarded as the index of every condition of 

64 



* 



n^ 




GLIMPSES OF SZECHWAN— OUR WEST CHINA 
MISSION FIELD. 

Kiatingfu, West Gate. 

Chengtu, Great East Street. 
Tzeliutsing, river, and idol temple. 

A village street, sedan chairs emerging. 



Chinese Anatomy and Physiology 

the body, even to determining the sex of an 
unborn infant. Great parade is usually made 
by every practitioner in examining this important 
symptom. Dr. Harland's table, showing the 
sympathy supposed to exist between the different 
points of the pulses and the internal organs, is 
given below. In each wrist the pulses are named 
Inch, Bar and Cubit, the first being nearest the 
hand. A change in degree of pressure doubles 
the range of viscera thus indexed : 

LEFT WRIST. 

Inch, when lightly pTe&sed, inidicaiteis the state of the 

small intestines. 
Inch, when heavily pressed, indicates the state of th-e 

heart. 
Bar, when lightly pressed, indicates the state of the 

gall-Ma,did€r. 
Bar, v/hen heavily pressed, indicates the state of the 

liver. 
Cubit, when lightly pressed, indicates the state of the 

urinary bladder. 
Cubit, when heavily pressed, indicates the state of the 

'kidneys, 

RIOHT WRUST. 

Inch, when lightly pressed, indicates the state of the 

large intestines. 
Inch, when heavily pressed, indicates the state of the 

lungs. 
Bar, when lightly pressed, indicates the state of the 

stomach. 
Bar, when heavily pressed, indicates the state of the 

spleen. 
Cubit, when lightly -pressed, indicates the state of the 

san chiao. 
Cubit, when .heavily pressed, indicates the state qt th« 

ming men. 

5 65 



Heal the Sick 



Yin and 
Yang — the 
two forces 
controlling 
the body. 



A con- 
venient 
theory in 
Chinese , 
medicine. 



The last two mean respectively " Three Pass- 
ages/' and " Gate of Life," but being purely 
imaginary organs, are difficult to describe. 

A diseased state of an organ is supposed to be 
owing to a disagreement of the Yin and Yang, 
to the presence of bad humors, or to the more 
powerful agency of evil spirits, and until these 
agencies are corrected, medicines cannot exercise 
their full efficacy. The surface of the body 
receives the closest attention, for there is not a 
square inch without its appropriate name. Plas- 
ters and lotions are applied to these places, 
according to the diagnosis of the disease, pre- 
dicated on the dual theory. The strolling quacks 
and regular practitioners, considering probably 
that the medicine would lose half its efficacy upon 
the organs it was intended to affect if it was not 
mixed with faith to operate upon the sentient 
principle lodged there, administer both the ratio- 
nale and the dose together. 

The Yang and Yin, above referred to, are the 
dual powers of nature, male and female. By 
many Chinese the world is supposed to owe its 
existence to the retroactive agency of these two 
powers. " Heat and cold, light and darkness, 
fire and water, mind and matter, every agent, 
power, and substance, known or supposed, are 
regarded as endued with these principles. This 
belief thus forms a simple solution for every 
question. The infinite changes in the universe, 

66 



Chinese Anatomy and Physiology 

the multiform actions and reactions in nature, 
and all the varied consequences seen and unseen, 
are alike easily explained by this form of cause 
and effect." Hence the great convenience of this 
theory in medicine. 

There is another very convenient theory, much The theory- 
used by all classes of the people — that of the J^ *^®„ 
" breath," or essence, or ether, described by the 
Chinese word " chee." A man has a pain in his 
stomach, the " chee " is stopped ; another has a 
tumor composed wholly of " chee " ; in still other 
cases, the foreign doctor is gravely informed that 
the " upper chee has broken communication with 
the lower chee," and the patient believes he has 
put the matter altogether clear and explicit. All 
he wants of the foreign doctor is to get those 
two " chees " into proper relation once more, 
and he will be cured! 



67 



DISEASES IN CHINA.— CHINESE 
DOCTORS. 



" The physician's soothing, healing touch is the broad 
scythe which sweeps a harvest to his feet. What 
further word may he not speak to that grateful patient 
whom he has delivered from long bondage to suffering, 
aggravated by doctors, falsely so called, and by a 
pathetic servitude to witchcraft and superstition ! The 
simple waiting-rooms of dispensaries are transformed 
into temples where the Lord God condescends to dwell; 
for some living missionary is beside the sufferer and 
turns his thoughts to those sweet words, ' God so loved 
the world,' or * Come unto me, all ye that labor and are 
heavy laden.' Hospitals become schools where heavenly 
lessons seem more easily learned than elsewhere." — 
A.B.C.F.M. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DISEASES IN CHINA.— CHINESE DOCTORS. 

Diseases in China. 

The enormous population of China exists and China's 
continues to grow not because of, but in spite of, population 
an extraordinary lack of sanitary precautions. 
The birth rate is high, large families being the 
rule. But there are two other conditions which 
help to keep the nation alive, their life in the open 
air and the fact that they cook both food and 
drink. The Chinese rarely drink unboiled water ; 
tea is universally used, and is always made 
with boiling water. Sometimes food is eaten 
raw, but for the most part it is cooked, and well 
cooked. ' 

The *' Heart of Szechwan," w'here our mission The climate 
is located, is in latitude 29 to 30, therefore of®* ^^ ^ 
the temperature of Florida. The summers are 
long and the midsummers hot, but the winters 
are mild compared with those of any part of 
Canada. Just where we are there is no snow, 
and no frost to amount to anything. Ice is seen 
once in three or four years, and is a great 
curiosity to the small boy when it is seen. The 
atmosphere is often very damp, and the winters 
are chilly, but the Chinese there do not attempt 
to heat their houses. As the cold weather comes 

71 



Heal the Sick 



The houses 
of the 
people. 



Drinking- 
water. 



on, they simply add more clothing. They add 
garment after garment, until they grow pic- 
turesquely round and comfortable looking. Fur 
garments are worn by all classes not only while 
out of doors, but in the house and at all times. 
The cotton-wool wadded garment is lighter and 
less expensive than the fur, yet very warm. In 
the spring, as the warm weather comes on, the 
extra garments are shed one by one, till the 
population once more shrink to their normal size 
and contour. Midsummer garments are of the 
thinnest material, and are few in number. 

As the people dress warmly, their houses do not 
need to be built as tightly as ours; great gaps 
are left between the eaves and the roofs or in the 
gables. The roof is made of baked clay tiles. As 
there is often no ceiling, and the tiles are laid on 
loosely, there is free passage of air through the 
interstices. Windows are made of wooden lattice 
work covered with paper, which is usually pasted 
on once a year, at the New Year time, but which, 
exposed to wind, rain and rats, is pretty well 
gone in a few weeks. Moreover, the Chinese 
always live through the day with their doors wide 
open. It is a serious task to teach a helper to 
shut doors after him in our houses in the winter. 
It is evident that the Chinese have good ventila- 
tion. It is mostly unintentional, but has its bene- 
ficial results nevertheless. 

Now as to drinking-water: the Chinese have 
a well-founded belief in the unwholesomeness of 



72 



Diseases in China 

cold water. They say that it is apt to give them 
a pain in the bowels, and other bowel affections. 
Cold water is raw water, it should be cooked, 
hence the universal preference for boiled or boil- 
ing water. Water or tea is often drunk luke- 
warm or cold, but if the water has once " come to 
a boil " it is considered to be quite safe. The 
Chinese have certainly learned well from experi- 
ence in this case. I believe this practice is 
responsible for a large measure of such freedom 
from disease as they enjoy. 

Infectious diseases are everywhere. They are Infectious 
spread by the general lack of cleanliness, and diseases 
also by the lack of knowledge of the commonest spread. 
principles of hygiene. Cholera seems to be 
always present in some part or parts of the 
empire, and sometimes commits fearful ravages. 
No scientific precautions are taken, either to 
check its course or to heal those who take the 
disease. In the summer of 1892, our first sum- 
mer in the province, there was a cholera epidemic. 
Many thousands of the Chinese died in Chengtu, 
and, among the missionaries, my first wife. She 
was sick for only eighteen hours after the dis- 
ease manifested itself, until she was gone. In 
Chungking several missionaries had the disease, 
but only one died. Dr. Cameron. 

Smallpox is always with us. The first Christ- Smallpox 
mas I spent in West China was in the house ^^j^h^^g 
of a Chinese evangelist, whose little child was just 
recovering from an attack of smallpox. Our 

73 



Heal the Sick 

children and ourselves are often exposed. The 
woman whom we hire to look after the children 
asks to be excused a little early some evening. 
On enquiry as to her object in wanting to be let 
off, she tells us that her own child has smallpox, 
has had it, indeed, for some days, but is a little 
worse just now, and she would like to go home 
an hour earlier in order to attend to him! She 
gets her leave of absence quickly, not only for 
the remainder of that day, but for some days to 
come. At least two adult members of our own 
Mission and one child have had smallpox. But 
in the providence of God they recovered. These 
two diseases, smallpox and cholera, have proved 
fatal to several members of other Missions in 
West China since we went there. 

Smallpox is as common in China as is measles 
in Canada, and is as lightly regarded. We see 
many people, old and young, in all stages of the 
disease ; they come to the dispensary, they come 
to church, and we meet them on the streets. It 
kills many, of course; that is understood and 
expected. But such a fate for the child is appar- 
ently taken philosophically. The poison of small- 
pox is in the bones, and that of measles in the 
bowels; these poisons must come out before the 
individual can be healthy. It is thought much 
safer for the child to have smallpox than for the 
adult. Much blindness in China is caused by 
this disease; the Hfe is saved, but the sight is 
lost. Deep pitting of the face from smallpox is 

74 



Diseases in China 

extremely common. In women this is sought to 
be hidden under face-powder. Vaccination is 
now coming into use everywhere, and is pre- 
venting many deaths which would otherwise 
take place. In 1898, on returning to Canada 
for first furlough, I was advised, by a good 
relative, not to stay an unnecessarily long time 
in Toronto in passing through ; " Because/' said 
he, " they had a case of smallpox there within 
recent months I" 
After cholera and smallpox come diphtheria, Tjrphus 

f Avar* IIQII* 

measles and dysentery, all of which are common, ^jj foUows 
Entirely without scientific treatment as they are, famine, 
the death rate from these diseases is undoubtedly 
much higher than in western lands. There is 
also typhus fever, which scourges the country in 
famine times. In 1904 there was a famine for a 
few months in certain sections of Szechwan, and 
typhus fever raged through these parts. Har- 
rowing tales of death and desolation which fol- 
lowed in its wake came to us. Two of our mis- 
sionaries took the disease, and were long months 
in recovering from the after effects. In many 
cases, whole families among the Chinese, num- 
bering as many as six to ten persons, were com- 
pletely wiped out. The ignorance of the people 
prevents them from taking any radical steps for 
its prevention, or even its mitigation. In June 
of this year, 1910, the Rev. E. J. Carson of our 
Mission died of typhus after an illness of only 
a few days. 

75 



Heal the Sick 



Tuberculosis 
and its 
ravages. 



Typhoid 
fever, mal- 
arial fever 
and mos- 
quitoes. 



Tuberculosis is, I believe, a greater scourge in 
China than elsewhere. It manifests itself in all 
the many ways in which it is manifested in the 
home lands, but there is this difference — which is 
true of almost all diseases — it is allowed to go to 
greater lengths absolutely unchecked. If the 
Chinese were suddenly to take to living in tightly- 
built houses, such as we ordinarily denominate 
" foreign houses," the results would be disas- 
trous. Lack of adequate ventilation would raise 
the percentage of deaths to an enormous figure. 

Typhoid fever is found, but, like many other 
similar diseases, it is one with which we do not 
come much in contact. Malarial fever abounds 
in all its forms. So do mosquitoes ; these are a 
great oest in China. We missionaries always 
sleep for about six months in the year under 
mosquito nets. The Chinese use nets made of 
cotton or linen, mostly, not in order to keep the 
mosquitoes off so much as to avoid drafts. They 
are exceedingly afraid of drafts of air, and prob- 
ably do themselves much more harm by sleeping 
inside such impervious material as they use in 
their nets and by breathing such bad air, than 
they would suffer if they allowed themselves to 
be bitten by mosquitoes. Enough mosquitoes do 
bite them, however, to keep the malarial poison 
well in circulation. They have various theories 
as to the cause of malaria. It is very commonly 
ascribed to demons. One man told me of the 
frantic efforts which he made once upon a time 

76 





■■ 


m 


^■^H 


*i^H^Mi[ 


f ii 


^^^^^H 










VpPs^^^ '^^^^^^^^^Hl 




'~.i^^mm\mmmmKm^'-^ 


^ -^Ha*. «^^^^H 


m^ ^ .. ^■■' 


^^^HilBHHIi 


^KL j.H^^H 


■vl/^fc 


- «» , _ - -*, 


fit**^^^ 




^^^' ^l " .^^m 


iW^ :^ -j 


" ^^". M^^ 


^♦.'' 


-^■'■'""■^ 




THE BURDEN BEARERS OF CHINA— THE COOLIES. 
On the way to consult the Foreign Doctor. - 
A Chinese hay wagon. 



Diseases in China 

to get ricl of the disease. He slept for a night in 
a yamen (magistrate's official residence), because 
demons dare not enter there ! But his fever and 
ague were as bad as ever. Then he waded 
into a pond up to his neck: demons are afraid 
of water! But, alas! the horrid demons still 
clung to him. He tried cinnamon bark, and 
found in it a much better remedy, and he 
recovered. 

Skin diseases are numerous and very common. Skin dis- 
The reluctance of the average Chinese to take a ofi^ese^ 
bath undoubtedly assists in the spread and viru- remedies, 
lence of many skin diseases. Itch is exceedingly 
common, and is found developed to such an ex- 
treme degree that the general health is under- 
mined, and even life itself may be endangered. 
Ringworm and other contagious scalp affections 
are often seen. The Chinese are afraid to apply 
water to wounds. They 'believe that suppuration 
is caused thereby, so ashes, flour, tobacco ash 
and many other things are applied to open 
wounds, often with the worst results. As might Chronic 
be expected, chronic ulcers are very common, and ^ ^®"" 
hard to cure. Poor or insufficient food, lack of 
cleanliness, hard work, working in water, all 
conspire to set up such diseases, and to make it 
hard to cure them. 

Rice culture is the great work of the farmers Rice culture 
and day laborers in the summer. The fields are f^j^^^ig^^"" 
plowed and harrowed under water; the rice is 
sowed in water ; it is hoed in water ; and it is 

77 



eat 



Heal the Sick 

finally reaped in water, or in mud and water. 
These classes of people complain much of rheu- 
matism, both acute and chronic. So do the boat- 
men, especially those on the small river between 
Chengtu and Kiating. In the cold months of the 
year the river is very low, and these men walk 
day after day in the shallow water, pulling and 
pushing their boats along. The prolonged chill- 
ing of their legs and feet leads to more than one 
serious condition. 
What the The Chinese are not vegetarians except of 

Chinese necessity. They are very fond of pork; this is 

the meat which is found on every market. They 
also consume with relish all kinds of poultry, as 
hens, ducks and geese. There are no turkeys in 
China, except such as have been introduced by 
foreigners into the open ports. Beef is not used, 
except by the few Mohammedan Chinese. Rice 
is the bread and butter of the Chinese, and, with 
one or two vegetables, constitutes the essential 
part of the meal. A large quantity, always well 
flavored with red pepper, is eaten. I fear the 
average Chinese does not " Fletcherize," hence 
we find much indigestion and dyspepsia. He has 
his own theories as to the real condition of 
affairs. A man with an obstinate dyspepsia 
assured me that in his youth he had had a 
hemorrhage of some sort, and that he was quite 
sure that he had a mass of " congealed blood " in 
his stomach, and that this mass was responsible 
for all his trouble. 

78 



Diseases in China 

The crude notions of the people as to the Some 
structure and arrangement of their internal theom^s— 
organs lead to some surprising theories of dis- the old 
ease. An old Buddhist priest once came to me, ^g*^ ^^ 
bringing with him a young woman whom he daughter, 
introduced as his daughter by adoption. From 
her racking cougH and general appearance, it was 
apparent at once that she was far gone with pul- 
monary tuberculosis. She staggered as she 
walked from the sedan chair to the steps of the 
house, and was pale and emaciated. The old 
man told his story, which was to the effect that 
a tortoise was growing in the young woman's 
abdomen, that it was drinking her blood, and that 
its head could be felt distinctly through the 
abdominal wall. They both realized that she was 
in a very precarious condition, and were ready 
to make use of any remedy that held out any 
hope for saving her life. Indeed, before I had 
a chance to examine the patient, the priest an- 
nounced that 'he had heard- of the foreigner's 
skill with the knife, and lie wished fhat it should 
be used, if necessary, in order to remove the hated 
tortoise. A simple examination sufficed to dis- 
close at once the source of the old man's ideas 
about the tortoise. The pulsations of the great 
abdominal aorta were distinctly palpable just 
below the stomach. I explained as well as I 
could the nature of the disease from which the 
patient was dying, and that she was already past 
human aid I pointed out that what the old 

79 



Heal the Sick 



Cancer and 
leprosy. 



Industrial 
accidents 
not 
numerous. 



gentleman had taken to be a tortoise was the 
abdominal aorta, the pulsations of which could 
be felt so distinctly through the patient's ema- 
ciated abdominal walls. But, with a smile of 
superior wisdom, the old priest indicated to me 
the exact point at which the tortoise's head could 
be felt, and once more entreated me to use the 
knife to remove the hated thing. It was evident 
that he had much more confidence in my skill 
with the knife than he had in my skill in diag- 
nosis. I could only hope, as they departed sad 
and disappointed, that they would not be so un- 
fortunate as to meet with some ignorant Chinese 
quack who would have the temerity to under- 
take a major operation to remove that tortoise! 
This was not improbable. 

I have found " stone " very uncommon in 
West China, as also leprosy. Tumors, large and 
small, benign and malignant, seem very common ; 
a good percentage of these are cancerous. Per- 
haps it is because in any western country they 
would have been operated on early, that we do 
not see nearly so many at home. 

Eye diseases are common, usually due to filth 
and to a total lack of intelligent treatment ; some- 
times due to maltreatment, I am bound to believe. 

We do not have many fractures or disloca- 
tions to treat, although of late years these have 
increased. Manufacturing establishments with 
more or less machinery have been introduced, 
and accidents occur. Broken legs and arms 

80 



Diseases in China 

result from the gymnastic exercises now so com- 
mon in schools, military and general. But acci- 
dents are not nearly so frequent as in western 
lands where we have railroads and much 
machinery. 

Many Chinese are addicted to opium, and come Opium and 
to us to break off, especially since 1906, when the ^^^^^^ol. 
anti-opium edict was put forth. Much alcohol 
is also consumed, although drunkenness is un- 
common. I had one man under my care for 
several days for treatment for delirium tremens 
and the after effects ; 'he recovered completely, 
and was very grateful for what had been done for 
him. Much disease is caused, especially chronic 
diseasej by the habitual use of alcohol. Chinese 
intoxicating drinks are made chiefly by the fer- 
mentation and distillation of millet, rice, barley 
and corn. Many Chinese of the wealthy classes 
use alcohol with every meal. 

" Filial Piety " Is responsible for many diverse FOial piety 
phenomena in China; as, for instance, ancestor?^ resSts^ 
worship; concubinage, to a certain extent; the 
exaltation of the male posterity over the female ; 
and for sacrifice on the part of children for the 
welfare of parents, in ways which are often hid- 
eous and grotesque. There is a common belief 
among the Chinese that a piece of flesh cut from 
the body of a son or daughter, and eaten by a 
sick parent, is a peculiarly efficacious remedy, 
and this barbarous practice is lauded by all 
classes of people as highly meritorious. 

81 



Heal the Sick 



A young 

man's 

sacrifice. 



Only a few months ago, in the autumn of 1909, 
a young man perpetrated the following atrocity 
in Chengtu. His mother was very ill. He cut 
a piece of fles'h from his arm, cooked it, and 
offered it to her; she ate it, but did not improve. 
He then chopped off his left hand, using a meat 
chopper for the purpose. He bound up the 
stump, cooked the amputated hand, and offered 
it to his mother. She, however, refused the 
unsavory dish, much to the chagrin of the son. 
In fact, the young man was so mortified that this 
last great sacrifice on his part for the welfare of 
his mother should perforce prove unavailing, that 
he attempted suicide by cutting his throat. It 
so happened that these people were near neigh- 
bors to the compound of the Canadian Woman's 
Missionary Society. Dr. Anna Henry was called 
in great haste to go and save, if possible, the 
young man's life. She found him alive, but very 
weak from loss of blood. Miss Wellwood gave 
the chloroform, while Dr. Henry tied arteries 
and stitched up a great gaping wound in his 
throat. She also discovered the stump left after 
his amputation of his left hand, and carefully 
dressed it for him. In this way the whole story 
was learned. Her patient made a good recovery. 
I should add that it is not the custom for women 
doctors to treat men in China, unless the circum- 
stances are altogether exceptional. This was a 
case of that sort — the people were near neighbors, 
and the case was exceedingly urgent. A delay 

82 



Diseases in China 

of even a very few minutes miglit have put the 

patient beyond human aid. 

Now these deeds on the part of that young a laudable 

man, which are so repulsive to all dwellers in|f.^°^Ple of 

filial piety. 
Christian lands, were praised by the Chinese as 

a noble example of filial piety. Officials high 

in rank, as well as multitudes of friends and 

neighbors among the common people, called upon 

the family to show their respect and esteem. 

Not lonsf as^o a similar case was met with in ^^^^ a ^ 
° ^ . young girl 

another city in West China. A young girl be- aid to 

came possessed of the idea that a piece of her ^^^^, ^®^ 

own liver was the only remedy that would cure 

her sick mother. With the greatest boldness she 

plunged a sharp knife into her side, and it was 

believed that she actually succeeded in removing 

a tiny portion of her own liver, which she then 

offered to her mother. The services of a foreign 

medical missionary were called in, in order to 

save the young girl's life. 

Quarrels, especially between husband and wife, Suicide and 

prosecution in the law courts, poverty and dis-^*^ many 
^ ' r ^ causes. 

ease, cruelty and scorn, and many other causes 
result in many cases of suicide. Attempted sui- 
cide by opium is the most common. The indi- 
vidual may be man or woman, young or old. He 
has taken offence at something or someone, and 
finds his most deadly revenge in suicide ! He is 
powerless to retaliate by any other means, at 
least to the extent provided by suicide. Five 
cents' worth of opium, bought at the nearest 

83 



Heal the Sick 

opium shop, is quite sufficient to effect the desired 

end, and then his ghost will haunt his victim, 

while his living relatives will have an ever-ready 

and never-failing cause of offence against the 

surviving factor in the quarrel. 

Opium YVe are often called to save an opium suicide, 

suicide. _ , . ,, , /^, 

In most cases, but not m all, we succeed. The 

victim has concealed his deed from all about him, 
or he has taken a big dose of alcohol along with 
the opium, a deadly combination, or he fights his 
would-be rescuers with fierce determination, 
refusing to take medicine by the mouth, and 
effectually preventing it being given hypodermi- 
cally, until the opium has taken such effect that 
he cannot be roused. I was called one evening 
to see a young man under twenty years of age, 
who lived on our own street, and who had taken 
opium. I took one of my Chinese dispensers and 
all my usual remedies along. We found a mus- 
cular young man, who had been recently married. 
In some little disagreement with his new wife 
she laughed at him, poked fun at him, I suppose, 
with the result that the foolish youth resolved to 
take his own life. This was the only way he 
could " save his face " ! He bought and swal- 
lowed ten times the quantity of raw opium usually 
considered necessary to cause death. I had been 
called promptly, and when I arrived he was still 
conscious. He absolutely refused to take any 
medicines, although all the members of his own 
family and several of the neighbors joined in 

84 



Diseases in China 

exhorting him to do so. We attempted to force 
him to swallow medicine, and were actively 
assisted by members of the family, though all 
unavailingly. He fought us off successfully, in 
spite of every effort on our part, until presently 
the extra large dose of opium which he had taken 
took rapid effect, and put him beyond possible 
recovery. 

Not all those whom we find unconscious are The assist- 
beyond help. We not infrequently find them so, ^^ce of 
and yet are able to save them. Most opmm sui- and friends 

cides are quite conscious when we reach them, ^ restoring 

, . .,,. , -. would-be 

and, moreover, are quite willmg to take medi- suicides. 

cine and actively to assist the doctor in saving 
their lives. With these the task is usually an 
easy one, although often prolonged. Calls to 
save opium suicides come at all hours of the day 
and night. Many a time I have responded at 
bedtime or midnight, and have worked for sev- 
eral hours over a would-be suicide, man or 
woman, using various measures to keep the 
patient awake and alive until the effects of the 
dose had passed off. The family and neighbors 
are always grateful and appreciative. These 
cases always win the good-will and even kindly 
regard of those who may have been previously 
perfect strangers to the foreigner and his 
message. 

Suicide is sometimes effected by taking strong Some other 
potash, and also by throat-cutting. In the for-™®^°^ ^j?^^ 
mer case, the patient lingers in agony for a few 

8s 



Heal the Sick 



days before death comes to his relief. In the lat- 
ter, recovery sometimes takes place after careful 
treatment by the Mission doctor, but many die. 
The insane The insane in China are an unfortunate class. 
Only Tne ^ ^^ ^^^ beUeve there are so many in proportion 
hospital for to the population as in Western countries, but 
the emp?rV° ^^^^ ^^^ there, and they suffer. An occasional 
one is treated kindly, but the greater number are 
chained up with scanty clothing, little attention, 
and often poor and insufficient food. The 
chances in favor of recovery must under such 
conditions be few indeed. The only hospital in 
China for the insane is a large Mission hospital 
at Canton, established by the late Dr. Kerr, and 
now under the care of Dr. Selden. Nearly two 
hundred patients are there cared for and treated 
according to the most gentle, kindly, and at the 
same time the most advanced methods known to 
modern science. A very large percentage of 
those received into the institution recover com- 
pletely, while the patience and kindliness, shown 
to this helpless class of afflicted ones, is a 
standing manifestation of the power of the love 
of Christ in the heart. 



The train- 
ing of 
Chinese 
doctors. 



Chine;se Doctors. 

Anyone may be a doctor in China. There are 
no medical colleges, no examinations, and no 
diplomas. No license is required for practice. 
A man makes up his mind to practise medicine, 
and hangs out his sign. He buys a book or two 
86 



I 



I 



Chinese Doctors 

and begins to read. As soon as he can get a 

patient, he will diagnose his complaint, write a 

prescription, and accept the very small fee which 

is given to the beginner. After varying fortunes 

for a year or two, he makes a " marvellous cure," 

surprising no one, probably, so much as himself. 

Likely as not his cure was effected by the method 

by which pins saved a great many lives, in the 

small boy's composition, — '* By people not 

swallowin' of 'em." The medicines which brought 

about the cure were entirely harmless, although 

swallowed, nature's methods were not interfered 

with, and a cure was effected quickly and well. 

Now the new doctor's fame goes up, his patients 

increase, and his fees also take a rise. He is 

able to buy a few more books, and to visit his 

patients in a sedan chair, instead of going afoot. 

Provided that he does not have the misfortune 

to " cure " too many patients " to death," he 

may, by the time he is of middle age, have 

acquired a steady practice^ and a comfortable 

income, as incomes go in China. 

Nowadays in a large centre like Chengtu, How the 

where there are three Mission hospitals in full Chinese pre- 

operation, the more noted Chmese doctors are m practise 

the habit of purchasing a few volumes of trans- foreign 
- . medicine, 

lations of foreign medical books, and giving out 

that they practise both foreign and Chinese 

medicine, at the option of the patient! The 

secret of their success is, I believe, more often 

in the harmless nature of the drugs they use, 

87 



Heal the Sick 

than in their efficacy, although their drugs are 
not always harmless. My Chinese patients fre- 
quently remark that the cause of their present 
condition is, " Chih yoh chih kwai liao," — " I took 
the wrong medicine." That is to say, that the 
medicine which they took was not the proper 
kind for their complaint, and their present dis- 
eases result largely or wholly therefrom. I used 
to think this must be mostly their imagination, 
but an experience I had on one occasion con- 
vinced me that there was certainly some truth in 
it. I was called in to see a bright and promising 
young man, a teacher of English in a large school 
in Chengtu. He had been engaged to come all 
the way up from Shanghai, and was well con- 
nected. I found him walking about, and still 
doing his work, but suffering from a very serious 
condition, much more serious than he thought. 
I ordered him to bed at once, and endeavored 
to keep him there while treating him. But his 
fellow-teachers began to persuade him that he 
was not recovering quickly enough, and that he 
ought to employ a celebrated Chinese doctor 
whom they recommended. He allowed them to 
call the Chinese doctor, and began to take his 
medicine, while mine was set aside. One morn- 
ing just at dawn^ I was called suddenly, to find 
my patient in a state of co'llapse. On careful 
enquiry, I discovered the state of affairs, and 
was shown my medicine almost untouched, and 

88 



Chinese Doctors 

the prescriptions of my Chinese rival. During 
the previous night my patient had swallowed a 
great bowlful of medicine, after the usual Chinese 
fashion. This had been immediately rejected, 
but sufficient was retained to act as an irritant 
poison, and my patient was clearly in a bad way 
as the result. I found it quite impossible to get 
a guarantee that the Chinese doctor would not 
be allowed to interfere at any time with his 
bowlfuls of horrid decoctions, and so necessarily 
gave the case up. The young man died two days 
later. 

The Chinese doctor is expected to diagnose How the 
his case entirely from the pulse. He gravely diagnosis is 
feels first the pulse of one hand, then that of 
the other. He is not at all averse, as a rule, to 
obtaining all the information he can by questions 
during and after the time taken to feel the pulse. 
But the pulse is alleged to be the great resource. 
With each of the first three fingers of his hand, 
he detects certain minute differences in the three 
sections of the radial pulse, differences which 
reveal to his skilled touch the conditions of the 
various organs, such as the heart, lungs, liver, 
kidneys, etc. It matters not that the Chinese 
doctor is quite ignorant of the location of most of 
these organs. He may imagine the heart to be in 
the abdomen, the liver in the thorax, and that a 
small intestine perforates the heart, — he is sure of 
his diagnosis by the wrist alone. 

89 



Heal the Sick 



Professional 
etiquette a 
doctor is 
forced to 
observe. 



We medical missionaries are naturally expected 
to make our diagnosis in the usual way. Not 
infrequently, when called to see patients in their 
homes, I have, in order to avoid the necessity of 
long explanations, felt the pulse of each hand 
as presented. I was once called to see the wife 
of an official, who complained of her eyes; her 
sight was dim ; what could the foreign doctor do 
for her? I declared solemnly that I must see 
the patient, otherwise it would he impossible 
to do anything for her. After much parleying, 
I was shown to her room, and a bench was placed 
for me beside her bed. The beautiful silk cur- 
tains were closely drawn. Another bench was 
placed against the bed, directly in front of me, 
and with the inevitable little book on it as a 
hand-rest. Presently from between the tightly 
closed curtains came a slender hand. It rested 
on the book, and I was told to feel the pulse. 
I obeyed, glad to have gotten even so near to my 
patient. But presently the foreign doctor felt 
that he must risk the danger of being thought 
stupid, so boldly demanded to see the patient's 
eyes, about which complaint had been made. 
A very narrow aperture was carefully made by 
the husband between the folds of the curtain, 
and as little as possible of the face of his wife 
was shown to me. It was at least feasible to 
make some kind of a diagnosis. I prescribed, 
but did not 'hear of the patient afterwards. This 
is, indeed, one of the greatest difficulties in the 



90 



Chinese Doctors 

way of visiting patients in their homes. Accord- 
ing to Chinese custom, no doctor may make a 
second visit without a second invitation. That 
is to say, every time he goes to see a patient 
in the home he must be invited. On more than 
one occasion, I have been disappointed in trying 
to gain access without waiting for that special 
invitation. The patient might have promised to 
allow me to call at my own convenience, but at 
the gate of the compound I would be met by a 
member of tbe family with the exclamation 
"Tang Kia," which being interpreted means in 
very polite language, " You are hindered," that 
is, " Please go home, for you are not admitted." 
On one occasion, I was met by a man who smil- 
ingly told me that the patient was quite well, 
that this happy result was the effect of my 
medicines of the day before, and that, therefore, 
there was no need for me to enter to-day. On 
making careful enquiry a few days afterwards, 
I found that the patient had had several Chinese 
doctors in steady succession after my one visit, 
and that he had steadily grown worse and died. 
Chinese doctors are not bound by any code of 
etiquette which hinders their taking charge of a 
patient whenever and wherever called, especially 
if there is a prospect of a fee. 

Chinese doctors do not usually dispense their Chinese 
own medicines, but write prescriptions, just as according to 
we do in the home land. The prescription is prescription, 
carried to a drug store and filled. The medicines, 

91 



Heal the Sick 

which are usually numerous, may be dispensed 
in separate paper packages, or they may be mixed 
together by the druggist, and all done up in one 
paper. In any case, the universal custom is to 
carry the drugs home, empty them into a pot, 
pour on water, and place on the fire to boil. 
When the patient thinks his medicine has boiled 
long enough, he removes it from the fire, strains, 
and pours off the liquid. The latter may be of 
fairly thick consistency, and there may be a 
good bowlful ; but if the patient can drink it all 
at one dose, he does so. That is the custom. 
In case he cannot manage it at one dose, the 
remainder may be left till next day, and then 
taken. If some marked effect of the dose is felt 
immediately, the patient is likely to boil his medi- 
cine over again or else have his prescription re- 
filled, or he will go to see his doctor again. 
But unless some such marked effect is noticed, 
a change of doctors is sure to result. 
Some These things cause us missionary doctors 

the mission- trouble. For we must carefully and repeatedl}' 
ary doctors, caution our patients not to boil our medicines 
before taking; and also that the whole bottle- 
ful must not be taken at one dose! Should th^ 
patient not follow our directions the result is 
likely to be disastrous to him, not to speak of 
the sad waste of good medicine. Hence our usual 
custom is to give medicine for two or three 
days only, rather than for a longer period. In 
this way the patient will not get such an overdose 

92 



Chinese Doctors 

if he should take aU the medicine at once, and 
he will return oftener if he takes it according 
to directions, and receives benefit. He will, there- 
fore, come oftener in contact with the Gospel 
message, which is one great object of our medical 
work. 

Chinese doctors specialize to a considerable 
extent. There are physicians, surgeons, eye 
specialists, smallpox specialists, and others. 
There are also midwives, who not infrequently 
advertise on their signboards that they 'have their 
skill " from their ancestors." " Surgeons " treat 
chiefly skin diseases and ulcers, and are much 
despised by their confreres, the physicians. The 
latter profess much mysterious knowledge of 
human anatomy and of physiology, of the various 
organs and the " channels of influence " between 
them, through which flow peculiar essences or 
ethers. The stoppage of some of these channels, 
and consequent interference with the free flow 
of the ethers, produce most of the manifold ills 
to which man is heir. 

There are a great many medical books in Chinese 
Chinese,' the best of which, in Chinese opinion, ■books, 
have come down from remote periods in ancient 
times. A Chinese doctor, who lived on our street 
in Chengtu, showed me a copy of a medical work 
which he consulted constantly. It consisted of a 
number of small volumes, and showed the marks 
of faithful use. I learned that it was published 
six hundred years ago. Another medical text- 

93 



Heal the Sick 

book much used by Chinese doctors was published 
about two hundred years ago. A favorite text- 
book is a prescription-book which has been 
handed down from father to son through several 
generations. Not infrequently a man begins the 
practice of medicine and succeeds, with a pre- 
scription-book as his sole medical book or library. 
The practice of ancient times is revered in medi- 
cal as well as in political or educational circles. 
The ancients excelled the moderns, and the con- 
stant struggle is to emulate the skill of these old 
worthies. 
Compliment- Chinese doctors very frequently receive, in 
given to recognition of their skill and success, compli- 
doctors. mentary boards from grateful patients. A com- 
plimentary board is a signboard, anywhere from 
three to ten feet in length, of proportionate width, 
and richly painted and lacquered. It usually 
has on it about four or five large Chinese char- 
acters, cut deep and painted in gilt. There are 
sometimes, in addition, many small characters, 
describing in detail the disease or condition for 
which the patient consulted the doctor, together 
with some account of the measures used for the 
cure. When I received my first complimentary 
board with a flattering inscription on it, I felt 
highly honored, until I saw exactly the same 
kind of board before each of the houses of half 
a dozen ordinary Chinese doctors. The Chinese 
doctor not infrequently bargains with his patient 
for a certain sum of money and a "board," a5 

94 



Chinese Doctors 

the price of his service and medicines for the 
cure of the condition under consultation. Later, 
when his reputation is fully assured, and the fees 
are larger, he can afford to let those send boards 
who feel so inclined, without any previous bar- 
gaining. The patient, on the other hand, will 
offer of his own accord to present a compliment- 
ary board, when he is cured, as an inducement to 
the doctor to do his best! 

The mottoes on these boards are often grossh Flattering 
flattering, as " He is able to work cures like the on " boards.'^ 
gods " ; " He is first in skill in the Empire " ; 
" He works miraculous cures." Hwato was a 
very famous surgeon of ancient times, as Pien 
was a famous physician. The names of these two 
worthies are frequently invoked to describe the 
skill of some of their *' unworthy " descendants, 
as for instance, ''Hwato come to life again"! 

A somewhat interesting sidelight is thrown How Dr. 

upon Chinese ideas with resjard to women by 5.^};*^ 
, . ,. ? . r Kilborn was 

the circumstances attendmg the reception of one presented 

of my most flattering: boards. My wife had with a ^ 

, t ^, . i . t • -11 testimonial, 

attended a Chinese lady during a severe illness 

and had given her satisfactory and successful 
treatment. The lady and her husband were grate- 
ful, and the latter expressed his gratitude by 
presenting me with a beautiful complimentary 
board ! The four large characters of the inscrip- 
tion declared that Hwato and Pien, those two 
famous men of old, were but fit to be my slaves ! 

95 



Heal the Sick 



Old Dr. Fang, 
a famous 
Chengtu 
practitioner. 



Other uses 
of compli- 
mentary 
boards. 



How the 
Chinese 
doctors 
collect their 
fees. 



Old Doctor Fang, recently deceased, but for 
many years a consistent member of our church 
at Chengtu, had a large practice. His house, 
or rather his rooms, were behind a public tea- 
shop. He was in the habit of seeing many of his 
patients in the tea-shop. Instead of diplomas 
for ornaments, the walls of this public room, 
full open to the street, were hung thick with 
complimentary boards. They were mostly small, 
from two to three feet long, painted more or less 
richly, and inscribed with all manner of highly 
flattering phrases. The dates extended back for 
many years. 

Complimentary boards of great size, richly 
gilded and lacquered, and expressing congratula- 
tions, admiration, or commendation, are very 
commonly presented by individuals or organiza- 
tions to temples, guild halls, yamens, and other 
public buildings. Sometimes they are presented 
to the Church. They are also presented on the 
occasion of the opening of a new building, or a 
hospital or a school. 

There is a common notion that Chinese doctors 
are paid while their patients are well, and that 
when their patients fall ill the doctor's pay stops. 
However praiseworthy such a method may be 
thought to be, the Chinese of West China must 
forego their share of the praise, for I never 
heard of such a practice there. It may exist in 
some other provinces. The universal practice 
in our part of China is that the doctor receives 

96 



Chinese Doctors 

an honorarium from each patient he prescribes 
for. The amount is small, varying from two 
cents to twenty, depending upon the reputation 
of the doctor, and whether the patient is seen in 
the doctor's office or in his own home. A young 
doctor, struggling to establish himself in practice, 
goes afoot to see his patients. But very soon he 
attains to the dignity of the sedan chair. Chair- 
hire, as well as the honorarium above mentioned, 
is always paid by the patient. At first he calls 
an ordinary chair from the chair-shop, but later 
on, when his name and fame are widely known, 
he keeps a handsome private chair, and three 
or four chair-bearers whom he employs by the 
month. Under these circumstances sedan-chair 
fees are collected as before, but are now added 
to the doctor's general income. 

In addition to these ordinary fees, Chinese Extra fees 
doctors make a practice of charging for expensive demanded. 
medicines which they declare they require to 
make up the desired prescription. " This medi- 
cine is very rare, and very expensive," they say, 
and one dollar or five dollars or sometimes more 
are advanced "to buy the medicines." 

Another method muc'h used in West China is Cure by 
that of " taking a contract " for the cure of the contract. 
particular patient the Chinese doctor is called to 
see. For twenty dollars, or fifty, or in some cases, 
of which I know, for as much as two hundred 
dollars, the Chinese doctor undertakes to see his 
patient when required, and to provide all the 
7 97 



Heal the Sick 



Treatment 
by acu- 
puncture. 



medicines for his complete cure. The patient is 
often glad to make such a contract, because then 
he will not be asked in the middle of the treat- 
ment for some exorbitant sum without which his 
doctor will not be able, as he says, to get the 
necessary medicines. Such contracts do not 
always prove satisfactory, because the patient 
may grow worse instead of better, and a change 
of doctors may be decided upon. In this case 
the doctor stands to gain, because for various 
reasons it is difficult to get money returned that 
has once been paid. 

Acupuncture, or a method of treatment by 
pricking with needles, has been used in China 
from ancient times. An acupuncture doctor came 
to see me on one occasion. He was a venerable 
looking old man, and as we sat talking together, 
he described with great gusto the three hundred 
and sixty different points in the human body at 
which needles "could be inserted"! These in- 
cluded several points about the knee and other 
large joints, and even about the abdomen. He 
pulled out package after package of needles to 
show me. He kept them classified as to length 
and size in little wooden cases. All of them 
were dirty, and some were covered with verdi- 
gris. They are used hot or cold. Pity the poor 
Chinese patient who submitted to stabs with 
those dirty needles if used cold. If they were 
thoroughly heated, he would oftener escape. 

98 



Chinese Doctors 

Another interesting side-light is thrown upon Chinese 
the utter absence of all standards for medical ^^^^*?^j^' 
practitioners in China, by a farcical examination Chengtu, 
of medical men held in the city of Chengtu in^9°7. 
July, 1907. This utterly unheard-of procedure, 
the examination of medical men with a view to 
judging as to their fitness for the practice of 
medicine, was provoked by an incident which 
just missed being a tragedy. 

Among the many interesting and beneficial Some insti- 
reforms which have been introduced within the chengtu and 
last ten years in the city of Chengtu, is the their 
establishment of a number of beggar workhouses 
and " houses of correction " for children. Their 
organization and management are wholly under 
the Chinese Police System of Chengtu. A 
Chinese doctor is attached to each one of these 
institutions. He is paid a salary amounting to 
about ten dollars a month for his service, and 
is considered one of the regular officers. 

In June, 1907, at a " house of correction " for One medi- 
children, located just outside the south gate of^^°f^®'^^^ 
Chengtu, a number of children were suddenly tragedy in a 
taken ill. On investigation, they were found to^^^^^'®^^ 
be receiving doses from a concoction prepared 
according to a uniform prescription by the doctor 
in charge. The doctor was promptly called' 
before his superior officers, and questioned as to 
the nature of the affection he was treating in 
the children and as to the action of his medicines. 
He could not give satisfactory answers, and was 

99 



Heal the Sick 



A test of 
efficiency. 



the Chinese 
medical ex- 
amination 
papers. 



accordingly fined two months' pay, and per- 
emptorily dismissed. The deputy who had recom- 
mended this doctor for employment was fined 
one month's pay but retained in office. The fact 
that all the children ultimately recovered did not 
prevent this summary punishment. 

The matter was not allowed to rest here. The 
Police Department presently put out a proclama- 
tion calling upon all doctors in the city and 
suburbs to present themselves for examination 
on July the 7th. Only after satisfactory proof, 
in this way, of their knowledge of the principles 
of the science of medicine, would they be allowed 
to practise within the police precincts. 

Before the date set, more than six hundred 
men had signified their intention to come up for 
examination, by registering at the places pro- 
vided. The candidates were divided into two 
lots who were given different sets of examination 
papers. Each paper contained six questions, of 
which the candidate was permitted to select any 
two. A translation of some of the questions is 
given below : — 

1. Discuss the diseases peculiar to the three 
superior and three inferior " powers " (in na- 
ture). 

2. Among the seven diseases resulting from 
catching cold, there are those w'hose pulse varies 
in character from the ordinary pulse of this class. 
How are these distinguished? 

3. Carbuncles and allied diseases were strictly 



100 





THE OLD AND THE NEW IN EDUCATION IN WEST 
CHINA. 

Old examination cells, Chengtu, now the site of modern 
school buildings. 

Two former students of our Mission School, Chengtu, who 
have studied abroad for several years. 



Chinese Doctors 

classified by Djung Gi (who lived in the fifth 
century) into lung carbuncles and intestinal car- 
buncles. These matters may be studied in the 
Linshu (text-book). Explain in general terms 
to what organ, and to what pulse-channel belong 
the theory, symptoms, and pulse of car'buncles. 

4. Heart, small intestines, liver, and kidneys 
all have diseases which require purging. Some 
of these diseases are above the stomach and large 
intestines ; some pass through these viscera ; 
others again do not enter them. Give a detailed 
explanation of these doctrines. 

5. Most cases of malaria are treated through 
the gall-bladder pulse channel. Why must the 
fever be treated differently according to the 
season of the year? Discuss this question. 

6. Wry-necks are either very stiff or moderate- 
ly stiff. This disease arises from maltreatment of 
one of the pulse-channels. Which one ? 

A total of 397 candidates passed this exam- When the 
ination, and were accordingly licensed to prac- ^ere^on- 
tise the science of medicine in Chengtu andferred. 
suburbs. A day was appointed upon which all 
the successful candidates met together and re- 
ceived their certificates. 

A translation of the answer to one of the The answer 
above questions taken from the paper of a sue- ^f^J^e can^^ 
cessful candidate, may not be uninteresting, didates to 
One of the questions he chose was No. 5. He question 5. 
proceeds : — " The four seasons all have their 
noxious vapours and the five viscera are all 

lOI 



Heal the Sick 

affected thereby. The fevers and the rigors (of 
malaria) are due to the weakness of the stomach 
with interrupted and inefficient digestion. On 
examination. of the text-books on materia medica, 
we find that many of them treat malaria through 
the gall-bladder. But should one prescribe from 
a wrong class of remedies for correcting the di- 
gestion, or proceed to repeatedly strengthen the 
spleen, then he will find himself very much mis- 
taken ! The true method for curing this disease 
is nothing more or 'less than making a clear open- 
ing through the alimentary canal. If we would 
know the causes of this class of diseases, we 
must remember the principles of hygiene. An 
examination of the long-established treatises, 
together with the famous prescriptions, shows 
that there are methods whereby the diagnosis, 
the theories of the disease, and the treatment 
may be determined. ' Nine attempts and we 
shall arrive at the truth !' How shall we en- 
deavor to preserve life? The principles of hy- 
giene are real. When food and drink are taken 
in harmony with the needs of the system, how 
can these pestilential diseases find an entrance ?" 
An appeal Here we have ample evidence of the grossest 

eduwtion.^ ignorance of the very foundation principles of 
medical science. Anatomy and physiology are 
unexplored territory, while materia medica con- 
sists very largely of a long list of prescriptions, 
with the diseases for which they have been 
found useful. Intelligent medicine and surgery 

102 



Chinese Doctors 

are impossible, because intelligent diagnosis 
is impossible. For this in turn must depend 
upon a knowledge of the structure of the human 
body, and of the functions of its various organs. 
Other important and indispensable branches of 
medicine are either entirely unknown or ignored. 
Finally, to cap the climax, we are treated to the 
spectacle of more than six hundred members 
of the medical profession of the great city of 
Chengtu submitting to an examination on the 
technicalities of their speciality at the hands of 
the police! Moreover, no less than one-third of 
the total were plucked, and cut off from practice. 

Since such is the state of medical science, j^ deplorable 
so called, in West China, what must the masses state of 
of the people suffer in times of serious illness 
or accident, and at certain critical times? Even 
though our friend, the candidate, from whose 
paper we have quoted above, has made a shrewd 
remark or two about the value of hygiene, there 
is no evidence that he has any practical knowledge 
of the subject. He is on much safer ground 
when he descants upon the importance of " a 
clear opening through the alimentary canal," and 
upon taking food and drink " in harmony with 
the needs of the system." Such knowledge as he 
may have of these things is entirely empirical, or 
is based on a vivid imagination. 



103 



OPIUM— THE PROHIBITION OF OPIUM.— 
OPIUM AND THE MISSIONARIES. 



" I trust you at home are joining with us in China 
in daily prayer that this awful traffic in the bodies 
and souls of men may soon cease, so that the temp- 
tation either to contract or to renew the habit may 
be removed." — C. W. Service, M.D. 

" I still look upon the opium vice in China as 
China's greatest curse. I do not see how the 
Chinese are to rise as a people while the curse rests 
upon them." — Dr. Griffith John. 

" The awfulness of the opium habit seems to grow 
upon us only as we realize how widespread is the 
desolation and the ruination caused by opium in 
China. Not the destruction of an individual, but of 
a nation." 

" I left Shuenking early Monday morning, and did 
not pass through a mission station or see any Euro- 
peans till I arrived at our own compound in Chengtu 
the following Saturday evening. During those six 
days I did not see a solitary poppy, and it was quite 
evident as I approached the capital that the law was 
better enforced in our section of the country." 



CHAPTER V. 

opium.— the prohibition of opium.— 
opium and the missionaries. 

Opium. 

The poppy is believed to have been brought 
from Arabia to China in the ninth century, 
although the drug, opium, has not likely been 
known to Chinese doctors for more than two 
hundred years. 

The importation of opium from India to China How opium 
may have begun as long ago as that, but it was ^^ ^^^ 
only in the latter half of the eighteenth century China, 
that as many as a thousand chests were imported 
annually. At first this trade was carried on mostly 
by the Portuguese, but it gradually fell into the 
hands of the East India Company. Later, other 
nationalities joined the trade, importing the drug 
from Turkey and Persia as well as from India. 
The traffic was prohibited by the Emperor 
Kiaking in 1800 under heavy penalties, "on 
account of its use wasting the time and destroying 
the property of the people of the interior of 
China," and because they were exchanging their 
silver and commodities for the " vile dirt " of 
foreign countries. It was again prohibited in 
1820 by the Governor-General and Collector of 

107 



Heal the Sick 



Szechwan 
Province 
and opium. 



Customs of Canton. But by the aid of bribery, 
smuggling and kindred practices, the importation 
went steadily on and increased, until its legaliza- 
tion in the treaty of 1858 made after the second 
war between China and a western power. After 
this date it was useless for the Chinese to attempt 
to restrict the cultivation of the poppy, and it 
spread rapidly over the whole empire. Now 
opium is produced in large quantity in every 
province of China, or at least it was so produced 
until the issuing of the famous anti-opium edict 
of September, 1906. All that one writes on the 
opium question in China must be modified by 
the remarkalble changes which are found in pro- 
gress since that date. 

So much good land was given over to the 
cultivation of the poppy that the price of rice 
and wheat and other important food-stuffs was 
enhanced. Szechwan is the largest province 
in China, and has more people than any other 
province. Moreover Szechwan is also one of the 
most fertile provinces of China. These things 
help to account for the fact that this province 
rapidly assumed the first place in the production 
of opium, and that a very large percentage of 
the people of Szechwan became addicted to the 
opium habit. It was estimated that from fifty to 
eighty per cent, of the men, and from thirty 
to fifty per cent, of the women, had in some parts 
of Szechwan begun to use opium. 

The poppy is the same as that cultivated in 

108 



opium 

our own country for the beauty of its flower. 
Some years ago one of our good missionary 
women took some poppy seeds, among other 
kinds of flower seeds, with her to China. Along 
with the others, she sowed them in a little bed by 
her house. They grew and blossomed. Immedi- 
ately the Chinese jumped to the conclusion that 
one of the missionaries was growing her own 
opium! The poppies came to a sudden and 
violent end. 

All West China missionaries are familiar with ^^® beauti- 
ful poppy 
the poppy by the acre. A great field of poppies fields. How 

all in bloom, with colors varying from pure opium is 
white to a deep purple, is a beautiful sight, and 
one which I have often looked upon day after 
day and week after week in travelling through 
the province. When the petals have all dropped, 
and the oval or rounded capsule appears, the 
Chinese proceed to cut it slightly every few 
days with a many bladed knife. They go care- 
fully over the whole field, cutting each capsule, 
large and small. Then at least once in twenty- 
four hours the farmer goes just as faithfully over 
the whole field, scraping the thick black juice, 
which has exuded from the cuts on the capsule, 
into a dish or pail. Every capsule has, of course, 
to be scraped. The process is slow and tedious, 
and takes the time of many workmen. The drug 
is then exposed to the sun to dry. It is a thick, 
brownish, sticky mass, with small lumps or 
granules appearing through it, and has a powerful 

109 



Heal the Sick 



An opium 
den. 



How the 
opium is 
smoked. 



odor. The dealer boils and strains it, until the bulk 
is considerably reduced. When it is ready for 
smoking, it is a smooth, black, thick liquid, re- 
sembling treacle or tar. There are regular boiling 
shops, which do nothing else but boil opium 
for individual customers or for the opium dens. 
The process is carried on in full view of the 
street, and is a familiar one to both sight and 
smell of all who have lived in an interior city 
of China. 

Opium dens were of frequent occurrence in 
the streets of Chengtu and other cities of Sze- 
chwan. They were usually j>lain, ordinary shops 
with the door opening directly on the street, 
and with an old, dirty, cloth curtain hanging 
over the open door. On pulling this curtain 
aside, one saw two rows of beds, one on each 
side of a central aisle, running away back to the 
farther end of the room. The floor was probably 
of earth, and the beds simple wooden frames, 
covered with a straw mattress, and having the 
usual sheet of rush matting over all. The 
" office " of this establishment opened ofT one end, 
and was decorated with a great row of opium 
pipes, lamps, cups, and all the usual parapher- 
nalia used by smokers. The attendant stood be- 
hind his counter, ready to serve his numerous 
customers. 

On market day in villages and small towns, 
and on almost any day in the larger cities, one 
might see two rows of feet sticking out into the 



no 




I I ^ 



OPIUM— THE 



CURSE OF THE 
THE PEOPLE. 

A poppy field. 
Opium smokers. 



LAND AND 



opium 

aisles from the beds. The opium sm,oker always 
lies down to smoke. He does not remove his 
clothes, nor does he cover himself with bedding. 
He lies across the bed with his head towards 
the wall and his feet towards the aisle. His head 
rests on a small, hard, Chinese pillow. Two men 
usually face each other, and use one lamp in 
common. This is a little brass lamp only a few 
inches in height, burning rape-seed oil, and hav- 
ing the small flame protected by a conical, thick, 
glass globe. Each smoker uses a pipe made of a 
straight piece of bamboo with a detachable metal 
or porcelain bowl. This bowl has a very small 
opening, into which is thrust, with the aid of a 
long needle, the small pellet of prepared opium. 
The bowl is then approached face downwards to 
the flame of the lamp, the opium pellet is heated, 
and finally hisses and boils. The smoker with 
one or two powerful inhalations takes the whole 
of the fumes at a gulp, as it were, into his throat 
and lungs. He holds his breath for an instant, 
slowly exhaling, so as to enjoy to the full the 
intoxicating effect. 
The opium-smoker never becomes intoxicated Some of the 

as does the user of alcohol. He never breaks ®^f,^*? ®^ 

opium. 

furniture, does not become quarrelsome, nor 
abuse his wife and children. He does not reel 
in the streets nor fall into the gutter. He injures 
himself first of all, rather than those about him. 
The first effect of the daily dose is to make the 
habitu^ very talkative, as we missionaries often 

III 



Heal the Sick 

know to our sorrow. Many a time I have gone 
to bed in the early evening in a Chinese inn, 
tired out with a long day's travel, and hoping 
to have a good night's rest preparatory to an- 
other long stage the next day. But, immediately 
next door, separated from me by a thin parti- 
tion, two opium smokers talking incessantly, 
absolutely incessantly, never both silent, and much 
of the time both talking at once, would effectu- 
ally prevent sleep. The fumes from their opium 
are penetrating and disagreeable, but their talk, 
talk, talk, often goes on till long after midnight. 
At last the smoker falls asleep to wake late the 
next day, feeling all the discomforts of the re- 
action from the exhilaration of the night before. 
He is not fit for work, mental or physical, until 
he has had another dose. Sometimes the morn- 
ing dose is swallowed, because of insufficient 
time for the prolonged smoke, but he will look 
forward to his evening smoke as before. This 
is the daily routine of the opium smoker. 
How the The opium habit is first formed by the Chinese 

habit^is ^^ ways similar to those in which the alcohol 
formed. habit is formed in this country. That is to say, 

for good comradeship's sake, or because of the 
desire to do as others do. Opium is offered by 
host to guest, and is partaken of " just for fun." 
A few indulgences, and the craving is felt, and 
very soon the daily habit is formed. Then again 
it is begun in order to relieve a cough or a pain, 
very probably by the advice of a friend. The 

112 



opium 

cough or pain is relieved, of course, temporarily, 
but before it is cured, a worse disease, the crav- 
ing for opium, has fastened itself upon him. 
The habit once formed, there is only one thing to 
be done — keep right an taking the daily dbse, or 
the victim suffers. And the dose must be in- 
creased from time to time to satisfy the increased 
craving. 

The effects are soon manifest in the appear- The undoing 
ance of the devotee ; he begins to lose flesh, and opium 
to become pale. At times he is in high spirits, smoker. 
loquacious, jolly, brimful of schemes for making 
money and getting rich quick, etc. ; at other times 
he is dull and depressed, moody and irritable, 
with features downcast and hands tremlbling. 
After months or years, depending upon the 
rapidity with which the craving masters him, he 
loses his appetite; his features become deathly 
pale and drawn; his eyes become unusually 
bright, with pin-point pupils ; his breath is heavy 
with opium most of the time; he has become 
extremely constipated, with digestion much dis- 
ordered; he is careless about his dress, dirty and 
slovenly; his business is neglected; he pawns his 
clothing and household furniture, and in the 
worst cases he will pawn his wife and sell his 
children, in order to get the means to buy opium. 
If some passing disease does not carry him off, 
he dies of exhaustion which is partly the result 
of starvation. 



8 



113 



Heal the Sick 



Why the 

wealthy do 
not suffer 
so much as 
the poor 
from the use 
of opium. 



When the 
daily dose 
of opium is 
withheld. 



Not every case follows just this course. The 
wealthy have the best of nourishing food, and 
this makes a decided difference in the rate of 
decline in health. But the great majority of 
the Chinese people are poor. Their food is 
not of the 'best under ordinary circumstances, 
and it is often insufficient in quantity. When it 
is still further reduced under the decreased earn- 
ings of the opium smoker, his march down grade 
towards ill-health, poverty, disease and starva- 
tion is sure and rapid. 

If the opium smoker fails at any time to get 
his daily dose, he soon begins to feel great dis- 
comfort. He hesitates, falters, and is uncertain 
in his wofk, whether it be physical or mental. 
He becomes nervous, anxious, irritable, and if 
his opium is persistently withheld he may have a 
isharp attack of diarrhoea or vomiting or both. 
He breaks out in a profuse perspiration, is sleep- 
less, sometimes has a headache, and is without 
appetite ; often he has repeated attacks of shiver- 
ing or shaking, quite strong enoug'h to shake the 
bed violently, and to alarm him, although there 
is no rise of temperature such as accompanies a 
chill or rigor. He tosses about on his bed, and 
seems unable to lie still for more than a few 
minutes at a tjme; his nose may run, as if he 
had a severe cold, and his eyes water uncom- 
fortably. But the most persistent symptom is 
" distress/' as he says ; he is anxious, almost wild- 
eved, feels as though something dreadful were 



114 



opium 

about to happen to him, and if in the hospitals, he 
pleads with us for medicine to relieve his 
symptoms. 

Among our patients in West China are many Our opium 
opium smokers who come to break off the habit, ^heir" ^ *^ 
We require full payment in every case for board treatment, 
and medicines, otherwise we do not take them in. 
In some cases, however, the amount we demand 
for one month's board and treatment is less than 
that which they have been accustomed to spend 
during the same time for opium alone. 

We have abundant opportunity to watch the 
symptoms above detailed, and it has been my 
privilege to help a goodly number to regain 
sound health and vigor, after years of devotion 
to opium. Our usual custom is to withdraw all 
opium at once, and to administer various reme- 
dies to meet the peculiar symptoms which arise. 
After about three days' complete abstention from 
opium the worst of the patient's trials are over, 
and he begins to gain confidence. About the 
fourth or fifth day, his appetite returns, he begins 
to sleep better, and in two or three 
weeks' time shows a marked improve- 
ment. He puts on flesh, is a better 
color, is happy and cheerful, and is down- 
right glad to be free from the cursed stuff which 
has held him as a slave for so long. Fatal results 
have occurred, I believe, in the attempt to break 
off the opium haibit, although I have never seen 
one. It is usually in the case of elderly people, 

"5 



Heal the Sick 

w'ho are much emaciated by opium and weakened 
•by age, and who cannot well stand the shock. 
But for ordinary individuals in youth or middle 
age, no harm ever comes to them except the 
distressful symptoms of which they complain. 
It takes a strong will and a powerful resolution 
on the part of the patient to undertake the 
treatment, and still more to persevere right 
through. Here is where the power of prayer 
is often made manifest. These poor unfortunate 
men are emaciated in body and weakened in will, 
the veriest slaves the world has ever seen, not 
to men but to a thing, a drug which many of them 
loathe while they submit to its power. To these 
unfortunates comes the message of help and 
sympathy, sympathy for their sad condition, and 
help for both body and soul, not such as they 
have been accustomed to entreat from their 
deified heroes of ancient times, but from the 
all-powerful and all-sympathizing Saviour, Jesus 
Christ. Many a one, who was ready to give 
up and to sacrifice everything in order to get 
opium once more, has been strengthened in body 
and mind and helped to overcome through his 
own prayer for himself in the hospital ward. 

The; Prohibition of Opium. 

The edict At last the Chinese government became con- 

fl.fird.iiist 

opium vinced of the degradation and the ruin which 

issued in opium was working upon their country and 

nation. In September, 1906, the old Empress 

116 



The Prohibition of Opium 

Dowager issued that famous edict against it. 
This edict ordered that within ten years' time the 
importation of opium, the cultivation of the 
poppy, the manufacture, sale, purchase, and use 
of opium in any form, except for legitimate medi- 
cinal purposes, should be absolutely prohibited 
within the bounds of the Empire. 

Before this edict could be issued, an agreement The suc- 
had to be entered into with the British Govern- ^^^^^^ ^^ 
ment that the export of opium from India to the Chinese 
China should gradually cease during this term ^®^^^°^°^®°* 
of ten years. China on her side was to cease opium, 
the cultivation of the poppy and the production 
of opium for herself. 

A good deal of doubt was thrown by people 
of other nationalities upon the sincerity of the 
Chinese Government in this matter, and perhaps 
still more upon her ability to carry out the 
terms of the prohibitory edict. But I beHeve 
that we have abundant evidence, in the four years 
which have now elapsed since the issuing of the 
edict, of both the sincerity of the Chinese Gov- 
ernment, and its ability to live up to its ex- 
pressed determination. 

The most far-reaching measure adopted is that 
of the reduction of the area under poppy cultiva- 
tion. Several provincial governments announced 
that they had set for themselves not the full 
time-limit of ten years, lest they run over, but 
only one half the time, that is, five years, in which, 
if possible, to be rid entirely of opium. Already 

117 



Heal the Sick 

three or four whole provinces have reported that 
no longer is the poppy grov^n within their 
borders; and some of the prefectures and coun- 
ties in other provinces have reported the same 
thing. This year, 1910, our own province of 
Szechwan is undertaking to prohibit entirely the 
sowing of the poppy seed. Yunnan, to the south 
of us, had apparently gotten rid of it all in 1909. 
Ridding First of all, the order was simply given out, 

of the opium that during that year only four-fifths of the land 
trafiac. previously under poppy cultivation migiit be so 

used, and that one-fifth more was to be reclaimed 
each year, until in the fifth year no poppy should 
be grown at all. In many cases, men were sent 
out by the authorities to discover whether the 
law was being obeyed. A great many farmers 
had the whole or part of their poppy crops pulled 
up as a punishment for disobedience; others 
preferred not to sow the seed, lest they lose all 
in this way. 

In May, 1909, as Mr. Claxton, of the L. M. S., 
and I were travelling down the Yangtse we 
'\ visited the city of Fuchow, a busy centre on the 

river, a few days east of Chungking. This city 
has a wide reputation for the quantities of opium 
exported or transhipped from there to points 
in the eastern provinces. We saw evidences of 
the wealth of some of the big opium firms, in 
their fine houses, grand equipages, and other 
things. We were told a story that shows that 
men who have made their wealth in an iniquitous 

118 



The Prohibition of Opium 

traffic use the same tactics the worid over, but 
that they are not always treated as sympathetic- 
ally by an autocratic government as by the demo- 
cratic government of a Christian land. 

A number of the big opium dealers, on learn- ^^® 
ing of the proposed restriction of the growth protest, 
of the poppy, came together to consult as to 
what measures they should take. They argued 
that since it was " by this business that we have 
our wealth," and moreover that " not alone at 
Ephesus but almost throughout all Asia " there 
was grave " danger that this our trade come into 
disrepute," they ought to appoint a strong com- 
mittee of representative, influential men, who 
should go at once to Chengtu to wait on the 
provincial government. The committee was 
forthwith appointed. They travelled thirteen 
days in order to reach the provincial capital; 
they interviewed the high provincial authorities, 
and stated their case carefully, showing the im- 
mense danger which would result to their large 
vested interests by the proposed legislation; they 
urged that the very least that should be done was 
to postpone the time during which the growth of 
the poppy should be interdicted. We missionaries The atti- 
honor, and I believe all men who value simple *^® ®* *^® 
justice and fair dealing will honor, the provincial 
government of Szechwan for their action in this 
matter. The committee of wealthy, influential 
men was sent back to their own county with the 
reply, that the physical and moral welfare of 

119 



Heal the Sick 

the sixty millions or more people of Szechwan 
was of vastly greater importance than all the 
" vested interests " of the few hundreds or even 
thousands of opium dealers in the county of 
Fuchow, or, for that matter, in the whole pro- 
vince. This year opium restrictions promise to 
be just as severe in Fuchow as in any other part 
of the province, even though some prospective 
fortunes fail to be made. 

The atti- Another measure adopted for the better 

tude of the , ^ , ^ ^ . 

Government, advancement of the cause of prohibition of opium, 

is that which was promulgated very soon after the 
issue of the general edict; this was that all pro- 
vincial officials from a certain rank upwards 
should give evidence within a limited time of 
entire personal freedom from the opium habit. 
The penalty was dismissal from the service. 
An opium refuge, for the use of officials wishing 
to break off the habit, was opened by the govern- 
ment in Chengtu, and a large number of men, 
some coming from points located' on the extreme 
boundary of the province, twenty or more days' 
journey away, took advantage of it. A few 
came to the medical missionaries for medicines, 
or into the wards for treatment. Some resigned 
and withdrew, because they either preferred not 
to give up their opium, or feared the possible 
disastrous results of attempting to break off. 
Some, on the other hand, professed abstention, 
but kept on using it. A military official of con- 
siderable rank attempted fraud in this way, by 

120 



The Prohibition of Opium 

concealing his opium smoking after professing 

to have given it up. He was discovered, tried, 

condemned, and promptly beheaded. This was 

at Peking. No one justifies the cruelty of Chinese 

methods of punishment, but such promptness and 

determination in eradicating a great evil win the 

heartiest approval. 

The influence of right example set by the offi-^^® 

. effective 

cials of China can scarcely be over-estimated, influence of 

Their position is very different from that of gov- the action 
ernment officials in western lands. They receive officials, 
their appointment from those above them, not 
by the votes of electors. There is a great gulf 
fixed between the officials and the common people. 
The latter look up to those in authority with a 
mixture of reverence and real fear, for the offi- 
cial's lightest word is law; the county magis- 
trate has the power of life and death entirely in 
his own hands. The powerful influence of offi- 
cials may be used for the ends of justice, or as 
all too often happens for their own selfish pur- 
poses. But in any case, the influence of even their 
example is very powerful, and thus in ranging 
themselves on the side of anti-opium, they are 
making use of one of the most effective measures 
at their command. 

A third important means being made use of ^^ April, 
is the closure of the opium dens. There were opium dens 
many thousands of these in the great city of in Chengtu 
Chengtu with its half million inhabitants. They 
were on every street, and were well patronized 

121 



Heal the Sick 



Closing of 
the opium 
dens 
removed 
temptation. 



both through the day and in the evening. Young 
men and old, youths and middle-aged, were to be 
seen there, but no women. Chinese ideas of pro- 
priety would prohibit the presence of women in 
such a place. The cities in our province were 
more slow to move in this respect than some of 
the other large cities of the Empire. But one day 
early in 1909 a proclamation appeared to the 
effect that on a certain day and date in the month 
of April all the opium dens in the city should 
be closed! The people had not been consulted 
in any way in the making of this radical change, 
although this was not the first warning that such 
a step was likely to be taken, for certain cities 
in other provinces had already enacted such a law. 
That all the advantage does not lie with the 
democratic form of government in making and 
enforcing laws, was proven by the fact that on 
the day named in the proclamation, all the opium 
dens in our great city were closed without noise 
or disturbance of any sort. We saw padlocked 
doors, as we walked along the street, instead 
of the open doors with parallel rows of smokers 
on the beds inside. At one fell stroke all those 
dens of idleness, disease, and defbauchery were 
wiped out. 

We were not so foolish as to believe that all 
the opium smokers had suddenly given up the 
habit. We knew very well that many men had 
been assiduously ibuying and storing up a generous 
supply of the drug against the day of the closure. 



122 



The Prohibition of Opium 

These simply transferred their place of smoking 
to their own homes. But one thing was certain, 
the horrible temptation to men of all ages and 
classes, as they thronged up and down these 
narrow streets, was entirely removed; moreover, 
the sale of the drug in this way became illegal, 
and the traffic more disreputable than ever before. 
I believe the effect upon the city of Chengtu 
was just as beneficial as the effect would be upon 
the city of Toronto if all the saloons there were 
suddenly closed. 

Within the past four years the price of opium 
has doubled, and from this cause alone many are 
compelled to break off; they cannot afford to 
use it. Many became apprehensive lest the supply 
would be entirely cut off — this is just what the 
government is aiming at — and therefore they 
are taking early steps to rid themselves of the 
craving. 

By these and many other less conspicuous Jt*raise is due 
methods, the Chinese Government is undertaking Qovernment, 
to rid their land and people of one of the a lesson for 
most widespread and most deadly drug habits ^tions" 
which has ever afflicted mankind, and I believe 
they will succeed, and that, too, well within the 
time-limit they have set for themselves, that is, 
by 1916. They deserve praise and sympathy for 
the great effort they are making, and prayer for 
their success. It is at the same time not at all 
impossible for Canada, and perhaps for other 

123 



Heal the Sick 

Christian lands of the West, to learn some lessons 
from the mighty struggle now going on in China. 
Alcohol Opium is comparable with alcohol in several 

and opium, respects. It causes its victim to believe that he 
can, when under its influence, put forth greater 
physical effort, whereas as a matter of fact he 
is really weaker, just as in the case of alcohol. 
He believes that with the aid of opium he can 
think faster and more clearly, whereas the con- 
trary is the truth, again exactly as in the case 
of alcohol. The prohibition of opium is opposed 
by some on the ground that it will interfere with 
trade, and therefore with the prosperity of the 
community. This fallacy reminds one of the 
- precisely similar arguments used by those opposed 
to the prohibition of alcohol. 
The prosper- I was much struck not long since by an account 
nZn^undeT^" ^ ^^^^ °^ ^^^ transformation which had taken 
opium place in certain parts of the province of Yunnan 

prohibition, ^o the south of Szechwan, consequent on the pro- 
hibition of opium. The writer was a missionary 
living amid the scenes he described. He said that 
within the year after opium was removed from 
certain village communities in Yunnan, a general 
air of thrift and prosperity became noticeable. 
Houses and shops were cleaned and repaired, 
and were more neatly kept. Business seemed 
to improve. More men were ready to work than 
before, and they worked better. They earned 
more wages, and spent them on their families. 
More money seemed to be in circulation, and 

124 



opium and the Missionaries 

altogether the contrast with previous conditions 
when opium was almost universally used, was 
striking and encouraging. 

Such transformation will undoubtedly be no- A nation 
ticed in every province, prefecture, and county, as *^.^^".2 eman- 
the opium is put away. The importance of this 
great reformation and its far-reaching influence 
upon the future development of the Chinese 
nation can scarcely be over-estimated. It means 
life prolonged, and the best energies of millions 
of men and women saved for something useful; 
it means an economic gain of hundreds of mil- 
lions of dollars to each generation, both in money 
saved from useless and harmful expenditure on 
opium, and in that earned by those who must 
otherwise have been non-productive members of 
the community; most important of all, it means 
the emancipation of the nation from the deadfy 
thrall of a drug whose whole effect upon the intel- 
lect and morals of its victims is nothing less than 
withering. All honor to the Chinese people for 
their recognition of the evil, and for their deter- 
mination in grappling with it. May they be given 
the wisdom and the grace of perseverance neces- 
sary to a complete victory. 

Opium and the Missionaries. 

There never were two opinions on the opium As the 
question on the part of the missionaries in China. "Missionaries 
The degradation and ruin which the drug works opium 
upon the individual, the family, and the com- smokers. 

125 



Heal the Sick 

munity are ever before us. I have never heard 
a Chinese defend the use of opium, but I have 
heard many condemn it. The smoker himself 
is usually ready to admit that it does harm, and 
that the practice is wrong. No Protestant Church 
knowingly admits one who uses opium into mem- 
bership. We never employ a man who smokes 
opium, if we can help it, for any purpose what- 
ever. Smokers are slow and uncertain in their 
work, they have not the physical endurance of the 
non-smoker, they are untrustworthy in money 
matters, in fact there seems sometimes to be a 
real perversion of the moral sense, as a result 
of the use of the stuff. (Those who are con- 
firmed in the habit are slovenly and dirty in their 
persons, they are unshaven and uncombed, their 
breath is foul, and their clothes are dirty. They 
rise at noon, or, as I have had occasion to 
notice, not till well along in the afternoon, and 
they do not retire until the small hours of the 
morning, sometimes not until daylight. They 
gamble and smoke the nights away. Their habits, 
made necessary by the imperative demands of 
the drug, render them totally unfit for study or for 
business. Unless the young man is gripped in 
time by some powerful force — the Gospel or some 
other message — ^^he proceeds with ever-increasing 
momentum down the broad road to ruin and 
death. 
The church Every missionary, no matter where you find 
MiU^opium^^ him, from Peking to Yunnanfu, from Canton 

126 



p 





INSTEAD OF THE POPPY, RICE IS GROWN. 

Among the rice-fields on the " Great Road " from Chungking 
to Chengtu. 

A chain pump, a common method used in irrigating the rice- 
fields. 



^ 



opium and the Missionaries 

to the most north-westerly limits of Kansuh, is, 
therefore, an active anti-opium agitator. In the 
conduct of his own household, in all his business 
dealings with the general public, and in 
the direct preaching of the Gospel in his 
church, he maintains an attitude of un- 
compromising hostility to the use or the 
handling of the opium in any way, except 
for medical purposes by the doctors in the hos- 
pitals. He has always done this, and further, he 
does not have to work long single-handed, for 
his church membership is composed of anti- 
opium people, men and women who are pledged 
absolutely against it, and who do not hesitate 
to use all their influence in the good cause. 
They let others know their principles, both 
the doctrines of the Gospel and some of its 
necessary corollaries, as total abstention from 
opium. Thus every missionary and every Chris- 
tian organization, whether composed of two 
members or of two hundred members, is as 
leaven which is leavening the whole lump. These 
centres of influence are yearly growing in num- 
ber throughout all the province ; while as yet few, 
sadly few in proportion to the enormous mass of 
population to be leavened, still they are now exert- 
ing a decided influence upon the whole. 

The medical missionary is doing a large share The schools 
of this great work, for he not only directly urges *°^ opium, 
along the campaign against opium, but he helps 
127 



Heal the Sick 



The abuse 
of official 
rank by 
Roman 
Catholic 
missionaries. 



in a very effective way, by taking in patients who 
wish to 'break off the opium habit. 

The educational missionary is doing his share, 
both by enlightening the students who come 
under his teaching, and by refusing admittance 
to any student who uses opium. The government 
schools are also doing a great work for the anti- 
opium cause by just as rigidly denying admittance 
to their schools to all who use opium in any 
form. No teacher, lecturer or professor, not 
even the meanest coolie in any one of the gov- 
ernment schools all over China, is allowed to use 
opium. The discovery of its secret use means 
instant dismissal. 

There has been much trouble in China because 
of the interference of missionaries in the law- 
suits of their converts. Roman Catholic mis- 
sionaries were some years ago, I think in 1900, 
accorded official rank, according to their standing 
in their own church. A priest ranked with a 
county magistrate, and a bisihop with a viceroy. 
The Roman priests were, therefore, empowered 
to demand and receive interview si and special 
attention from the Chinese officials in a way they 
never had been able to do before. Protestant 
missionaries were at the time offered the same 
status as their Roman Catholic confreres, but 
respectfully declined to accept it. The ground 
taken by the Protestant missionaries was that 
such a relation was altogether contrary to the 
spirit of the Gospel message which they go to 

128 



opium and the Missionaries 

China to preach, and that it would lead to abuses 

of such privileges on the part of our Christians. 

Their Chinese rank has recently been withdrawn 

from the Roman Catholic missionaries by the 

Chinese government, so that some of the abuses 

due to that rdation will surely disappear in the 

near future. 

There may have been some Protestant mis- P'ot^stant 
, ,1 , . , 1 ,. t- ,, missionaries 

sionanes who, through a mistaken notion of the ^nd law 

value of the good to be derived from allowing suits, 
their names to be used in Chinese lawsuits, have 
been the unwitting tools of false and designing 
men — men who had crept in unawares. But 
this does not seriously affect the position of the 
Protestant missionary body as a whole. We 
shall always do much more harm than we can 
possibly do good, by interfering in any way, 
whether personally, or by allowing our name? 
to be used, in cases at law between Chinese and 
Chinese, and, therefore, the principle of non- 
interference is strictly adhered to by all, or prac- 
tically all, the Protestant missionaries throughout 
the length and breadth of China. 

I have mentioned these matters in order to A neglected 
make perfectly clear the difference between what promoting 
I have just referred to above, and a very valuable reforms, 
method of work which is only too little used by 
missionaries, I mean that of the cultivation of 
social relations with Chinese officials, and of the 
use of every legitimate influence to ally them with 
us in the promotion of moral reform movements, 

9 129 



Heal the Sick 



important 
circular 
letter re 
opium. 



When the inner history of some of the great 
reform movements now in progress in China 
comes to be written, it may be found that mis- 
sionaries have had more to do with their origin 
than is evident on the surface. 

In midsummer of 1906, missionaries in West 
China, in common with those in all other parts 
of the Empire, received circular letters, asking 
that the blank forms enclosed be signed by all 
the men and women missionaries, in Chinese 
and English, giving the missionary's nationality, 
date of his arrival in China, etc., and requesting 
that as soon as possible the completed forms 
be returned to the sender. Dr. Dubose, a veteran 
United States missionary of Soochow. Dr. 
Dubose had visited the Viceroy of his province, 
and when he urged the anti-opium cause, the 
Viceroy had promised that if he would get all 
the missionaries in China of all nationalities to 
sign a carelully prepared petition for the pro- 
hibition of opium, he, the Viceroy, would under- 
take to forward it to the Imperial Government at 
Peking. Our signatures were to be attached to 
this petition, — a copy of which was enclosed to 
us, — the whole made into a neat book, and then 
handed to the Viceroy for transmission. We 
may never know just what influence, if any, that 
petition had on the minds of high authorities 
of the central government at Peking; but we 
do know that within a few days after its receipt 
in Peking, the great Anti-Opium Edict of Sep- 

J30 



opium and the Missionaries 

tember, 1906, was issued, and that from that 
time till this, the Chinese Government, and prac- 
tically the whole Chinese nation, have been doing 
their best for the eradication of opium and the 
opium habit. 

Locally we have been able to do a little for ^ ^^ ®^ 
the cause. In Chengtu some years ago, I was and its 
privileged to be one of a delegation appointed '^^^ ^* 
by the missionaries of the city to call on the 
Viceroy, and to urge upon him the importance of 
legislation against either opium or footbinding, 
or both. That was after 1902. In that year the 
missionaries in our city were permitted for the 
first time to make a friendly call upon the then 
Viceroy. That call was made at his request. 
Since that time not a year has passed, I think, 
in which there has not been at least one call made 
by a missionary or by missionaries upon the high- 
est provincial officer. 

On the occasion referred to, Mr. Grainger 
and myself were received at the appointed time 
and place with every mark of politeness and 
respect. We had nearly a half hour's interview. 
The conversation was free and unconstrained. 
His Excellency sympathized with the object of 
our visit, and promised to do something. A few 
weeks later, he put out a long and very carefully 
prepared proclamation, which was hortatory 
rather than prohibitive, and which urged in clear 
language and with many good reasons the com- 

131 



Heal the Sick 

plete abstention from opium and the doing away 
with the ancient custom of footbinding. 
The visit The Chengtu community of missionaries took 

Alexander ^ similar step on another occasion, and with 
to Chengtu. similar good results. In the winter of 1906-7, 
the Honorary Secretary of the British Society 
for the Suppression of the Opium Traffic, Mr. 
Alexander, visited West China, and addressed 
a large number of public meetings of Chinese in 
the interests of the prohibition of opium. One 
of the most remarkable meetings I ever attended 
for any purpose was his biggest meeting in 
Chengtu. He held one or two meetings for the 
Christians alone in the churches, but in addition 
an interview was arranged for him with the Chief 
of the Chengtu Police System, Mr. Chow. The 
latter was ready to co-operate at once, and put 
out a police notice that a great public meeting 
would be held on a certain day and hour in the 
courts of the Fukien Guild, a great public building 
in the centre of the city. At the time and place 
appointed, we missionaries found that we were 
associated with several officials of considerable 
rank, and that a great crowd had gathered to hear 
the addresses. The audience, who stood in an 
open court, consisted of men only. There were 
no seats, and no roof. The men were packed 
closely together, shoulder to shoulder, and chest 
to back. If there had been seats, the area could 
not have contained more than one-third or one- 
quarter the number present. A curious incident 

132 



Opium and the Missionaries 

was the injunction by the high official who was 
acting as Chairman of the meeting. Between 
two of the addresses, he said : " Now, clear your 
throats and cough," and as with one common 
inspiration, that dense mass of several thou- 
sand men did as they were told, cleared their 
throats and coughed, and then once more settled 
down in perfect quietness to hear the next 
address. 

iThe speakers stood on a raised, covered piat-'^ 
form at one side, whence they could command ^^^^^ men 
a good view of the crowd, and could be fairly 
easily heard. It was estimated that at least five 
thousand people stood there for one hour and a 
half, listening attentively to the three addresses 
delivered. One, the Secretary's, was given in 
English, and interpreted 'by a missionary into 
Chinese; the other two were given in Chinese. 
One of the latter had been prepared by the offi- 
cial who was in the chair, but was delivered by 
his deputy. 

This great meeting was an inspiration to all ?^he police 
1.7. , . , , „ help m the 

the missionaries, and it was undoubtedly a strong campaign 

stimulus to all Chinese who had the abolition of against 
opium at heart. The method of teaching and 
exhorting the people by means of public lectures 
was presently adopted and made persistent use of 
by the Chengtu Police Department. They hired 
a number of rooms in different parts of the 
city, and appointed police deputies to give ad- 
dresses daily on the harmfulness of opium, and 

133 



Heal the Sick 



The 

greatest 
reform of 
modern 
times. 



on the proposed policy of prohibition through- 
out the Empire. These lectures must have done 
much good, both in enlightening the people and 
in winning support for the sweeping reform only 
then being inaugurated. 

In all these ways, then, are missionaries en- 
deavoring to make the very most of every legiti- 
mate influence, and are looking to the complete 
abolition of the curse of opium in China. With 
the blessing of God this greatest moral reform 
movement of modern times will go on to victory, 
and one of the most serious obstacles to the pro- 
gress of the Gospel among the Chinese will have 
been removed. 



134 



FOOT-BINDING— THE MISSIONARIES 
AND FOOT-BINDING. 



PRAYER 

Prayer is the mightiest force that men can wield; 

A power to which Omnipotence doth yield; 

A privilege unparalleled, a way 

Whereby the Almighty Father can display 

His interest in His children's need and care. 

Jehovah's storehouse is unlocked by prayer, 

And faith doth turn the key. Oh, would that men 

Made full proof of this wondrous means, for then 

Would mightier blessings on the Church be showered. 

Her witness owned, her ministers empowered, 

And souls ingathered. Then the Gospel's sound 

Would soon be heard to Earth's remotest bound. 

All things are possible if men but pray, 

And if God did but limit to a day 

The time in which He'd note the upward glancftv 

Or fix the place, or name the circumstance 

When, where, or why petitions could be brought^ 

Methinks His presence would by all be sought. 

But since He heareth prayer at any time. 

For anything, in any place or clime. 

Men lightly value Heaven's choicest gift 

And all too seldom do their souls uplift 

In earnest pleadings at the throne of grace. 

Oh, let us then more often seek His face 

With grateful hearts, remembering, while there, 

To thank our Father that He heareth prayer. 

—W. W. P. 



CHAPTER VI. 

FOOT-BINDING.— THE MISSIONARIES 
AND FOOT-BINDING. 

FOOT-BINDING. 

No one knows for certain the origin of the The origin 
custom of foot-binding; no one knows just when ^^jj^^^g' 
it began, but everybody knows that the practice not known, 
is practically universal throughout China. At 
any rate this was true up to the first few years 
of the twentieth century. There are various 
stories as to its origin, as that an imperial con- 
cubine of two thousand years ago applied pretty 
silk bandages to her feet to hide their deformity. 
The emperor admired them, and the other court 
ladies following the fashion, the custom gradually 
spread through the whole land. One story has 
it that one of the ladies of the court in a dynasty 
between one and two thousand years ago, bound 
her feet simply for amusement, and showed them 
to the emperor. He admired them, and the 
fashion spread. It is a stock joke in China that 
men first bound the feet of their wives in order 
" to keep them from gadding about ! " The 
Chinese themselves laugh freely when making 
this suggested explanation. 

137 



Heal the Sick 

The women Then as to the time, it is quite certain that 
cripples^ the practice has prevailed for more than one 
thousand years ; and it may be more nearly two 
thousand than one thousand. It is hard for us to 
realize that practically all the women of China 
are cripples. When we first landed at Shanghai, 
and saw now and again a Chinese woman hobbling 
along, the first thought was that here was a 
woman with a peculiar deformity, or perhaps her 
feet were sore, causing her to walk with such a 
gait. But the next we saw, and the next, walked 
in the same way. As we penetrated into the 
interior of the country, it became evident that the 
women were really deformed, and that all were 
deformed. Sometimes people say to us that 
" Surely the farmers' wives do not bind their 
feet ? " But they do. " But how can they do 
their work?" On their small feet, of course, 
although they cannot possibly have the physical 
strength or endurance which they would have, 
had their feet not been bound. I have seen 
women, whose feet were tightly bound, in the 
fields hoeing corn. In some parts of southern 
China many of the women on the farm have 
natural feet, but in West China farmers' wives 
seem to be just as rigid in their observance of 
the custom of foot-binding as any other class 
of women. This is true, I believe, of most of 
China. We hire a woman to do our washing, but 
she cannot stand all day long at the tub, she 
kneels on a board by the side of the tub, in order 

138 



Foot-binding 

to do her day's work. Her feet get tired and 
sore, if she uses them too long at a time. 

Slave girls do not bind their feet ; they are not Slave girls 
allowed to, for they would then be incapable ^^j^^^jj^ 
of the amount of work demanded of them, women 
Chinese girls who are brought up from child- ral^^eet 
hood to lives of shame, especially those found in 
the open ports, do not usually have their feet 
bound. Manchu women never bind their feet. 
The Manchus, it will be remembered, are the 
reigning dynasty in China. There are Manchu 
colonies, originally garrisons, in each provincial 
capital. We have a large one in Chengtu. The 
Manchu women are taller than the Chinese, and 
as a general thing of more regular features ; 
one often sees those among them who are hand- 
some in figure and face. I believe both these 
advantages may be traceable to a very consider- 
able degree to their abstention from foot-binding. 
The custom seems to have no attraction for them ; 
on the contrary, they despise it. With these 
exceptions, practically all the women of China 
have bound feet. The faintest suggestion that the 
boys or men should bind their feet is quite 
enough to provoke a Chinese audience to mirth. 
That one-half of the population bind their feet 
is no argument for the extension of the custom 
to the other half. 

The process of binding is begun when the child The procesg 
is about four or five years of age. The feet are ^. ^®^" 
bound by the mother or grandmother; if a 

139 



Heal the Sick 

girl's mother dies, the neighbors pity her because 
she has no one to bind her feet! At the very 
first the suffering is slight, but the bandages are 
slowly tightened as the child grows, until it 
becomes intense. Only the big toe is left straight, 
the other four are turned under the sole of the 
foot, the instep is gradually pulled backwards, 
while the heel is pushed forward. There results 
a deep crevice across the sole, just in front of 
the heel between the heel and the " ball " of the 
foot. A case-knife might be laid in this notch 
without projecting to the level of the sole. The 
child walks on the upper surface of the four 
smaller toes, which in course of time sink into 
the under surface of the " ball." The general 
shape of the sole of the bound foot is that of 
a long narrow triangle, the end of the big toe 
forming the apex, and the back of the heel the 
base. The upper part of the instep bunches up 
in front of the ankle, and makes an ugly lump 
or mass where it would seem that an ankle should 
be. All the advantage of the arch of the natural 
foot is completely lost; there is no longer any 
spring in walking, because of this fact. If pos- 
sible the child avoids putting any weight on the 
front half of the foot, and walks entirely on her 
heels, and this is the peculiar gait which she is 
forced to assume for the rest of her life. She 
walks, in other words, as though her legs from 
the knee down were made of wood. Her feet 
cannot grow in the natural way, nor has she 

140 










x: 




. . 


<T^ 


:3 




Q 


^ 


43 






X 


?t: 


L) 


^^ 


fe 


'rt !" 


o 


^ a 






iz; 


2"- 


w 




:^ 


3 


o 




^ 


Q 




W 




J 




P-. 




CL, 




1— 1 




(^ 




u 




w 




m 


en 


H 


:3 




o 


Q 


•s 


iz; 


^ 


< 


u 




v 


H 


> 


W 


Hs 


W 




fe 


" F 




o I 


P 


-fi^f 


;z; 


^ i 


l:^ 


^'^ 


O 


in 


w 


>. 


w 


.s 


X 




H 


i 



Foot-binding 

any use for most of the muscles below the knee. 
Consequently the calf and ankle muscles never 
develop to their normal size, and the legs are 
always thin and spindling. A common Chinese 
expression refers to them as " two sticks of fire- 
wood." 

Within the first year after binding is begun, The suffer- 
the child suffers acutely. She will not walk or ^^jg j^^g 
play if she can sit down, and consequently she 
gets altogether insufficient exercise. She often 
loses sleep on account of the pain, or sleeps 
with her feet hanging over the edge of the bed, 
in order that the numbness may deaden the pain 
Or she cries night after night, and then she is 
beaten or pinched, or treated in some other 
cruel way. No child can suffer in these ways 
without showing the effects in her general health. 
Her appetite fails, she grows pale and thin, 
and her vitality is lowered. She is subject to all 
the usual "children's diseases," and a great many 
girls who have survived the most critical period, 
the first two years of life, are carried off be- 
tween five and ten years of age by what would 
otherwise be unimportant ailments. They "take" 
things easily, and their resisting power is so low 
that they do not easily recover. 

The bandages are removed and the feet washed Evils of 
at infrequent intervals — several days, or perhaps bindina 
even a month. Sometimes face powder is put 
on the feet, and as most Chinese face powders 
contain lead, the child is apt to get lead poisoning. 

141 



Heal the Sick 

This interferes with the general health. She 
often cries piteously when she has to have her 
feet unbound and washed ; this part of the opera- 
tion may not be very painful, but the rebinding 
causes great pain. Sometimes a child tries to 
loosen the bandages, but the mother or grand- 
mother finds it out, punishes her and tightens the 
bandages once more. The deformity is not 
complete until the twelfth or thirteenth year. 
The result is that health is impaired, growth is 
retarded, and by the constant abuse the moral 
nature of the child is very much dwarfed and 
perverted. Girls with bound feet when sent to 
school make very poor students; they have not 
the mental and physical vigor required for 
application to their studies. Many cases of 
disease of the feet which result directly from 
foot^binding are seen. There are ulcers and 
abscesses, caries and necrosis, and sometimes 
gangrene of toes, or heel, or of bones. 

After marriage a wife may loosen the bandages 
somewhat, in order to please her husband, or 
for the same reason she may tighten them. In 
some few cases in the country, the husband may 
make her take off her bandages so that she can 
work better. On the other hand, she may, if 
their circumstances admit, tighten her bandages 
to an extreme degree, so that her feet may be 
smaller than her neighbors'. 
The We often ask the Chinese about us why 

ulhi^^ they persist in such a cruel practice. There are 

142 



Foot-binding 

just two reasons given : " It is the fashion," 
and " We cannot marry our daughters off unless 
we bind their feet." They argue with a great 
deal of cogency that if they were to allow their 
daughters to grow up with unbound feet, they 
would be pecuHar, their neighbors would point 
at them, and ridicule them ; their daughters might 
be taken for slave girls! These things are all 
but vital with the Chinese. Fashion is a power- 
ful force in Christian lands, but it is infinitely 
more so in those that are non-Christian. " We 
might as well be out of the world as out of 
the fashion!" 

Then there is the second reason ; we must Small feet 
remember that in China the young man and marriage, 
woman most concerned are not consulted when 
the marriage is arranged. These matters are all 
attended to by the parents. A middleman or 
middlewoman is used to help along the negotia- 
tions between the two families. The parents 
of the groom-to-be may have a glimpse of the 
bride-elect before the ceremony, or they may not, 
but with the rarest of exceptions the groom never 
sees her, much less speaks to her beforehand. 
Among the questions asked by the parents of the 
young man, and by the young man himself, is the 
very important one as to the size of the young 
woman's feet. This matter is of at least as much 
importance as her regularity of features, and the 
question as to whether she is able to read or 
write her own language is altogether subsidiary; 

143 



Heal the Sick 



Patients 
suffering 
from foot- 
binding. 



at least this was true up to a very few years 
ago, and it is still true of the great majority of 
the Chinese people. If the young woman's feet 
are bound small, her chances of an advantageous 
marriage are thereby increased. Pockmarks from 
ear to ear would not injure her prospects so 
much as bound feet which have been left a trifle 
large, whereas feet that have not been bound 
at all at once mark the slave. While we may find 
the smallest feet among the wealthy and those of 
official position, it is undoubtedly true that the 
middle and poorer classes adhere to the custom 
with more slavish obedience. Why? Because 
they hope that their daughter's very small feet 
may prove to be her passport to an especially good 
marriage and a higher position in society. 

My wife. Dr. Retta Kilborn, has seen more 
patients who have come for the treatment of their 
bound feet than I have, but I have seen a share. 
A richly dressed young lady came to my dispen- 
sary for some trouble with her feet. On being 
assured that it was absolutely necessary to see 
the painful member before I could do anything 
for her, she removed enough of the rich silk 
bandage to allow me to see a sore on her Reel. 
I dressed it for her, but told her that it would 
probably not heal unless her bandages were re- 
moved entirely. I never saw her again. 

I was called to see the wife of an official, who 
complained of a sore foot. I found her seated 
on her bed, dressed in her gorgeous silks and 



144 



The Missionaries and Foot-binding 

satins, and with her face pasted over with 
cosmetics after the usual fashion. She showed 
me her poor, Httle, broken foot, thin and bloodless, 
blue, in fact, from the cold and poor circulation 
combined. The ankle above was not much more 
than skin and bone, the muscles were all wasted 
away from lack of use. It is not easy to do any- 
thing for such a case even when we are given 
a chance, and too often we do not get the 
chance. In this case there was a sinus, leading 
to diseased bone in the instep. I could do noth- 
ing without operation, and that was out of the 
question without a hospital, and in those days 
there was no hospital for women. Now we have 
such a hospital carried on by the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society in Chengtu, to which the Chinese 
women go freely for all sorts of treatment, both 
medical and surgical. They do go to our General 
Hospital for treatment by our men physicians, 
but they go more freely to that of the Woman's 
Missionary Society. 

The^ Missionaries and Foot-binding. 

The unbinding of the feet in the case of adult Church 

1 0. t- J 1^ ^ e 1- 1 • members and 

women has not been made a test of membership fQQ^.I,inaing^ 

of the Christian church, but the whole influence 

of the church has been and is against the custom. 

Old women have not been urged or even asked 

to unbind. Middle-aged women have been urged 

to set a good example by unbinding, but all 

parents have been charged not to bind the feet 

10 145 



Heal the Sick 



Antl- 

foot-binding 

societies 

organized 

by the 

Ciiurch. 



of their small daughters, and to unbind those of 
their older daughters. A serious difficulty in 
the way of the latter proposition is the will of 
the young man to whom the older daughter has 
probably been betrothed. Without his con- 
sent she dare not unbind. After betrothal, the 
young woman belongs more to her future hus- 
band than to her own parents, while after mar- 
riage she belongs wholly to him and to his par- 
ents, and practically severs all relations with 
her own family. 

Anti-footbinding societies were formed, con- 
sisting of members and adherents of the church. 
Monthly or quarterly meetings were held, at which 
strong addresses were given, the evils of the prac- 
tice made plain, and the duty of the members 
shown to them in the light of God's Word and 
of their own consciences. Handsome pledge cards 
were printed, and many, both men and women, 
took the pledge. For the men it meant their 
share in the responsibility of bringing up their 
daughters with natural feet, or in the case of the 
young men, the choice, where possible, of brides 
with natural feet. There was always a strong 
exhortation to send their daughters to school 
where they would be educated, then the parents 
would find no difficulty in getting sons-in-law, 
even with the supposed handicap of natural 
feet. When put plainly to them, not many 
Chinese, even as long ago as the last decade of 
the last century, were prepared to hold that a 

146 



The Missionaries and Foot-binding 

pair of crushed and deformed feet were equal 

in value to a well-trained and educated mind. 

Our Woman's Missionary Society boarding Schools of 
1 11 J •. .1 1 r .1 -L • • tJie Woman's 

schools have made it the rule from the begmnmg, Missionary 

that all girls must unbind their feet upon enter- Society, 
ing the schools. Adhering to this rule, there has 
been little or no difficulty at any time in getting 
a full complement of students. These students 
are not by any means all Christians; in fact the 
most of them are non-Christians when they first 
enter, but a very large number become Chris- 
tians while in the school. The work of our 
Woman's Missionary Society schools is now made 
easier in regard to foot-binding by the strong 
position taken by the government schools for 
girls. All these schools, in all parts of the 
Empire, admit as students only girls with un- 
bound feet, and the influence of this action is 
wide and powerful against this horrible custom. 

Following close on the proclamation, issued by Anti- 
Viceroy Hsi Liang in response to the request of goci^jJ^M^^^^ 
the delegation sent by the Chengtu missionaries among non- 
to interview him, there were organized a large ^^iils^e " 
number of anti-foot-binding societies in diflferent 
counties throughout the province of Szechwan. 
These originated wholly among the Chinese peo- v 

pie, and were organized and managed by them. 
A rule common to many of them was that all 
wlio joined should seek wives for their sons 
among the members of their society, and thus one 
of the most serious difficulties in the way of in- 

147 



Heal the Sick 



Official 
proclama- 
tions against 
foot-binding. 



A tribute 
to Mrs. 
Archibald 
Little. 



Foot-binding 
will be 
abolished. 



troducing natural feet was avoided. Some of 
these societies were very popular, and gained a 
large membership. Very much good was done. 
Many of them are still persevering, and con- 
tinue faithfully to educate the people along the 
line of the principles of natural feet. 

In the beginning of 1909, the present Viceroy 
of Szechwan, Chao Erh Hsuin, issued a procla- 
mation strongly exhorting all the people to do 
away with the custom of foot-binding, though not 
absolutely ordering that it be done. Many of 
the county magistrates followed with stronger 
regulations, calling for the unbinding of all bound 
feet within their jurisdictions, and setting a limit 
of time during which this should be accomplished. 

Very valuable work was done for the cause of 
anti-foot-binding by a non-missionary English 
lady, Mrs. Archibald Little. She travelled over 
many parts of China, holding public meetings, 
often under the auspices of Chinese officials or 
their wives, addressing them herself and getting 
others, whether missionaries or non-missionaries, 
to deliver addresses also. By these means and 
by organizing " Natural Feet Societies " in many 
centres, she succeeded in stirring up a deep inter- 
est in the cause of natural feet. 

It is safe to say that a movement has begun 
against foot-binding which we beUeve will go on 
until the custom has become entirely a thing of 
the past. It may take a generation or even longer, 
but the practice is doomed. It is a curious thing 

148 








i 






! 


Kroi^H 


1 




1 


fgi 

^(h 


1 


\ 


^hcy^ w>" jfy^ ^ ^Ri^^^^^Hi 


^kJ-'V^^^'^'^' '"^P^'^^O^^H 


^^B^|J^c^»**i^fct>— *o!^% -r^^i^^^^M 




|||^w:>-«c^^*^^ 


■ 




ST 


m 




a 



ONE OF CHINA'S REFORMS— THE CRUSADE 
AGAINST FOOT-BINDING. 

First annual meeting of the Anti-Footbinding Society in 
Kiating. 

A gathering of high-class women in Chengtu, to listen to an 
address on footbinding by Mrs. Archibald Little — Dr. 
Retta Kilborn as interpreter. 



The Missionaries and Foot-binding 

that the most enthusiastic advocates of natural 
feet, aside from the Christians, are the women 
of the official and literary classes. Many belong- 
ing to the wealthiest and socially the highest 
classes are now proud of their natural feet, 
proud of their ability to walk firmly and naturally 
without having to lean on a slave girl as their 
mothers do. From these higher classes the 
" fashion " will surely spread down through the 
masses, until assisted by the growing Christian 
communities everywhere, the hideous practice ot 
foot-binding will be swept from the Empire. 



149 



SLAVERY AND POLYGAMY. 



" So I do from my heart believe that in these diffi- 
cult places, in some of the bigger cities in China, and 
especially among the Mohammedans in Persia, Palestine 
and Africa, the medical missionary, whether man or 
woman, is able to do a work which no other one can 
do." — Dr. Herbert Lankester, 



CHAPTER ;^VII. 

SLAVERY AND POLYGAMY, 

SivAVEJRY. 

Rarely indeed do we hear of slave boys or men Men slaves. 
in China. I never saw one, although I have been 
told harrowing tales of men who have been kid- 
napped and carried off to work in coal mines ; of 
how they are made to work very hard, and beaten 
if they do not accomplish their allotted task for the 
day ; and of how they are never allowed to move 
away from the mouths of the coal pits, but are 
kept as prisoners in the mines, lest they make 
their escape. Among some of the Chinese 
nobility, however, male slaves are not uncommon. 
Sometimes they and their ancestors have been 
slaves in the family for several generations. 
Under such circumstances marriage is contracted 
between slave men and women, and the children 
of such unions, if living on the premises, are 
also regarded as slaves. Only when the third 
generation is reached may they cease to be 
slaves, and be paid wages for their services. 
Male slaves are found holding positions of trust 
and influence as overseers or managers of the pro- 
perty of their owners, whether large farms in the 
country or house property in the cities. 

153 



Heal the Sick 

Slave girls Slave girls and women, on the other hand, 

and women. ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ everywhere throughout China. 
All wealthy Chinese own slaves, the only limit 
to their number being the length of their owner's 
purse. The little girls are bought at from five 
to eiglit years of age at prices varying from two 
dollars or less up to one hundred dollars or more. 
The most common reason given for the traffic is 
the same as that given for infanticide — ^poverty! 
The parents are poor to begin with, and fear that 
they cannot earn enough to feed the extra girl, 
or, as very often happens, the father is an opium 
smoker, and is in need of money to buy opium. 
On the part of the buyer, the assertion is made 
that slave girls are needed to wait upon the lady 
of the house and her daughters. Slaves are 
cheaper than servants, and, like the daughter-in- 
law, they are obliged to take all the abuse and all 
the beatings without complaining. They cannot 
leave, and they dare not run away, for they 
would be caught, brought back, and beaten more 
cruelly than ever. In purchasing a slave the pre- 
caution is taken to guard 'by a carefully worded 
agreement against the possibility of the parents 
ever claiming the girl later in life. 

One or two slaves are deputed to wait upon the 
lady of the house, and, if the family can afford 
it, one also to wait upon each one of the 
daughters. Their whole duty is this per- 
sonal service, and it is made comparatively 
pleasant or exceedingly exacting, according to 

154 



Slavery 

the temper and disposition of the woman or 
girl who does the ruling. In the more pleas- 
ant circumstances, the little slave girls are 
very meek and very attentive to every wish of 
their mistress. They submit without complaint 
to all the beatings and all the revilings which 
fall to their lot, until something like friend- 
ship grows up between them and their young 
mistress, who may be about their own age, and 
their lot grows easier with the passing years. 
The slaves go with their mistress as part of her 
dower when she is married, and sometimes are 
elevated to be the concubines of their mistress' 
husband. The late Empress Dowager of China 
was reputed to have been a slave, and to have 
gained her prominence in the court in the first 
place in this way. 

But for the vast majority of slave girls in The slave 
China no such easy though degraded lot is pos- ^J^^J^g * 
sible. The slaves of the well-to-do middle classes, 
classes are used and abused in the most cruel 
fashion. The slave is the absolute property, the 
chattel, of the slave-owner the world over, 
whether in China or in Africa, and the owner 
acts accordingly. He bought her with his own 
money; can he not do as he likes with her? 
Most certainly he can, according to Chinese 
reasoning, and he proceeds to show the world 
that he can. 

The slightest failure on the part of the slave Cruelty to 
to satisfy the insistent demands of her mistress ^^®|^*^* 

155 



Heal the Sick 

often, leads to a fearful outburst of anger, fol- 
lowed by slappings and beatings with the hand 
and fist, to beatings with sticks, to pinching, and 
to the use of pins and needles, and in the most 
cruel cases to the use of hot irons for burning. 
While Dr. Retta Kilborn was in charge of our 
W. M. S. hospital in Chengtu, some very pitiable 
cases of cruelty to slaves came under her notice. 
The first patient to be received into the W. M. S. 
hospital was a little slave girl, who partly walked 
and partly crawled to the dispensary. She had 
many ulcers on her body, and a deep, peculiar- 
looking one on one of her heels. She would not 
tell at first what caused the sores, but after her 
confidence was gained she told how her mistress 
had burned her with a hot iron ; this was how the 
ulcer formed on her heel. She was so reduced 
in vitality that the best of care and good food 
were insufficient to restore her. She died in 
about two weeks. Another little slave came who 
had been abused and beaten, and scalded with the 
hot tea which her mistress had thrown on her. 
She also died. Still a third came to the hospital 
who had been so abused and neglected that some 
of her toes were gangrenous. It was thought 
at first that her feet would have to be amputated, 
but she rallied so that only some of her toes had 
to be sacrificed. She grew strong and well, was 
taken into the boarding-school, and became a 
bright, earnest Christian. Alas! when she was 
about fourteen tuberculosis fastened upon her 

iS6 



Slavery 

and scMDn took her away. The testimony of her 
character and conduct was most inspiring to all 
her schoolmates. 

The mistress in a Chinese family, who lived A Chinese 
just two blocks from us in Chengtu, abused one f ^^ j^i^^jj^^^ 
of her slave girls by beating and by sticking pins treatment 
into her so that she became unconscious. Then ^ ^^ ^ ^^^* 
she was thrown into the yard. Presently her 
mistress ordered that she be taken away and 
buried. This was done. After she had been 
buried in a pauper's lot just outside the city, 
some passers-by heard moans proceeding from 
the lightly covered grave, and gave an alarm. 
The coffin was exhumed, and the girl recovered 
consciousness long enough to tell who her mis- 
tress was and where she lived, then very soon she 
died and was again buried. But this was more 
than the public conscience of even the Chinese 
could stand. That inhuman mistress was arrested 
and heavily fined, although she was a member 
of a family of very considerable official position. 
The punishment was not for killing her slave, 
but for doing it in such a heartless, brutal manner. 
Punishment does not by any means always follow 
the beating to death of a slave, for under ordin- 
ary circumstances, in theory at least, the owner 
may put his slave to death and no questions are 
asked. 

At the Woman's Conference held at Shanghai Some stories 
in November, 1900, Dr. Ida Kahn, a Chinese which Dr. 
young lady educated in the United States, nar-l^^^ahn 

157 



Heal the Sick 

rated some of her experiences as follows : " My 
first painful contact with the system of girl 
slavery occurred in far-off Szechwan. One of 
my schoolmates there was little Winnie. She 
was not pretty, but she was at least sweet and 
amiable, and she sang with an almost phenomenal 
voice. Our teacher would often smile and say, 
' Ah, how people in America would appreciate 
Winnie's voice!' Unfortunately she had no 
mother, and her father was an opium smoker. 
One day, finding himself without the means of 
indulging his appetite, what did he do but sell 
this mere slip of a girl. How well I remember 
the consternation among us, when one of our 
schoolmates came in haste to tell us that she had 
seen Winnie's father carrying her oif to her 
master! A messenger was despatched, and you 
will be glad to hear that means were^ found for 
her rescue. Alas! her respite was short, for 
like a thunderclap came the riots of 1886, and all 
foreigners were driven away from Chungking. 
When we heard from that place again, we 
learned that Winnie had been resold. Some- 
where she may still be living. Who would not 
hope that the truths she garnered at school have 
proven ' a savor of life unto life ' in a higher and 
better world? 

" My sorrow for Winnie's lot "cannot be com- 
pared with what I felt for my classmate. Sin Si- 
Chen, on hearing that she, too, had been sold by 
an opium-smoking father. We were baptized 

158 



Slavery 

together, and she confessed to me that she would 
like to devote her life to Christian work, adding, 
so sadly, that she must first try to help her 
father. Where were gone her longings and aspir- 
ations, when she became the concubine of a man 
sixty years of age? Surely, on this eve of 
China's regeneration, we, the more favored ones, 
must plead with all our might that all these 
unnatural customs shall be swept away with the 
last relics of our country's barbarism. 

" Directly opposite our home at Kiukiang 
dwells a woman fairly well-to-do in the world. 
She kept two slave girls, one above and one under 
ten years of age. Her treatment of the two 
poor creatures became a neighborhood scandal. 
The younger of the two, being the weaker and 
less useful, suffered the more. Rarely did they 
have enough to eat, and my sister, as well as 
the other neighbors, sometimes tried to give them 
a full meal, but they needed to be exceedingly 
wary, or a harder beating than usual would be 
forthcoming. No bedding was furnished them, 
only a heap of straw, and often the younger one 
was made to sit on a bamboo chair all through 
the night. Being but scantily clothed, you can 
imagine how the child would shiver through the 
cold, wintry nights. As she grew weaker she 
must have suffered more without any outsiders 
knowing it, and evidently her shivering angered 
her master, for he made her tramp up and down 
the room, saying, * The foreigners tell us that 

159 



Heal the Sick 

exercise stirs up the circulation and makes people 
warm.' One morning, sleepy and weary, she was 
perhaps a little more stupid than usual, and she 
did not heed her mistress' commands fast enough, 
so a quick blow came, and she was stretched 
upon the hard stone floor. This time she did not 
rally. I^ater on a Christian neighbor came to us, 
asking if we would not try whether anything 
could be done to help the child. We found her 
thrown on a brush heap in the back yard. There 
was no roof anywhere to cover this child of God 
except the pitying heavens. She was in terrible 
convulsions, so we hurriedly asked if we might 
remove her to our hospital. ' You do not think 
she will live, do you ?' was the query. * No, we 
do not think she will, but we wish to do our best 
for her anyway.' The permission was grudg- 
ingly given, and we took her in. After a while 
the heartless woman came to look at her property. 
Seeing the child lying quietly in a bed and sur- 
rounded by every comfort, she asked again, * Is 
she going to live ?' ' No,' we sadly replied. 
* Then when she is at her last gasp, just throw 
her out into your front yard, and when she is 
cold I will send a man with a sack for her.' 
How indignant we were! But we only said. 
What harm would she do us if she did die in the 
hospital?' So, all unconscious, she passed away 
to Him who said, ' Suffer the little children to 
come unto Me, and forbid them not ; for of such 
is the kingdom of heaven.' " 

i6o 



fe^l 








I^^^^^^^^^Kf^ <J^I 


H^l 




"CHINA NEEDS NOT GODS, BUT GOD." 

Eyes have they, but they see not. They that make them shall 
be like unto them." 



Slavery 

The province of Szechwan has an unenviable The slave 
. . , . , . , 1 traffic and 

reputation for supplying slave girls to other parts gi^ve market 

of the empire. A slave market exists in Chengtu. of Szecnwan. 
It is well known to those interested in the traffic, 
but is carefully concealed from all others, because 
the public conscience of the people of China is a 
force which is coming more and more to be reck- 
oned with, and may not be flouted with impunity. 
Officials who are about to make the journey to 
the coast not infrequently buy six or more girls, 
whom they take with them to Shanghai to sell 
to the brothels. This is a well-known branch of 
the slave trade in China. It is cheaper to buy 
small girls and bring them up to lives of shame 
than to attempt to get them any other way. They 
are taught to play musical instruments and to 
sing. These are the well-known " singing-girls " 
of Shanghai. Many little girls are kidnapped 
and sold to the brothels, but Chinese law against 
kidnapping is strict and punishment severe, so 
that the dealers buy many outright, rather than 
run the risks of kidnapping. This is real slavery, 
just as real as servant slavery and much more 
shameful, while still just as hard to escape from. 
Sad beyond telling is the lot of these children, 
busy all night, singing, dancing, and filling opium 
pipes, beaten or burned if they are not suffi- 
ciently attractive to the guests or obedient to their 
owners, their only education that in the language 
and habits of sin, and their only prospect that of 
a sinful life at any age when they may be desired 
11 i6i 



Heal the Sick 

by evil men. No words can picture too darkly 
the horror of such a child's life. Until 1901, 
when a Rescue Home was established by some 
devoted Christian women in Shanghai, there was 
no possible way of escape for these brothel slaves 
except by suicide. Not a few of them took this 
last method. Some hundreds have been saved 
from the brothels through the Rescue Home, but 
these form but a very small fraction of the total. 

P01.YGAMY. 

Polygamy. Polygamy prevails in China among the official 
and wealthy classes, while polyandry is found 
only in Thibet. I have already mentioned that 
this practice of polygamy is one of the direct 
results of Chinese ideas of " Filial Piety." A 
common saying in Chinese declares that the 
greatest breach of filial piety is to have no chil- 
dren, that is to say, no male children. Hence 
there is a strong impetus to' polygamy on the 
part of the dhildless, and of those without male 
issue. We must, therefore, be free to acknowl- 
edge that lust is not by any means the only, nor 
even the chief, cause of polygamy in China. 
The influence One of our Christians at Chengtu was gone for 
of ancestral some days to see his wife in the country, who 
had been reported to him to be dying. He 
returned to say that she had died and was buried. 
I commiserated with him. What, therefore, was 
my surprise when a few months later, the same 
man brought his " sick wife " to the dispensary 

162 



Polygamy 

for treatment. '* But," said I, " I understood 
that your wife was dead and buried." ** Yes, but 
this is the other." Not that he had married 
another, he explained, but that he had originally 
had two wives. It seemed that his uncle had 
died without male issue, and he, as a young man, 
had been required by his older relatives to marry 
two wives, and to raise children by the one in 
order to continue his uncle's branch of the family, 
while the children of the other he reckoned as his 
own. 

There was another and a similar case at Jen- 
show. A man who, we believed, was an earnest, 
conscientious Christian told us the whole story 
of his marriage in middle life to a second wife, 
by the express command of his old parents. A 
brother had died without sons, and this man was 
ordered to raise up sons for him, in order that 
his branch might be continued, and that the usual 
forms of ancestor worship for the dead brother 
might be carried out. In both these cases mar- 
riage with the second wife had taken place long 
before the men had heard of Christianity. The 
custom is recognized by the Chinese; it is per- 
fectly legal, and it is respectable — it is even to 
be commended' — from their point of view. The 
man kept up two separate establishments, of 
which he was the head. One house was in one 
place, and the other some distance away. Both 
those women were wives, they were on the same 
plane exactly. There is a clear distinction be- 

163 



Heal the Sick 

tween this form of polygamy and that whereby 
a man takes secondary wives into his house for 
his own purposes only. In the latter case, one 
woman only, the first married, is recognized as 
the wife; all the others are concubines. The 
latter are looked upon as entirely respecta(ble 
members of the family. They are addressed by 
a term which signifies " Number Two Madam,'' 
" Number Three Madam," etc., according to the 
order in which they were married, while the 
proper wife is simply " Madam," or " Lady," if 
she is of rank. They all live in the one house, 
although each wife or concubine has her own 
suite of apartments. Children of concubines 
may be claimed and reared by the wife, if she 
chooses, for they are hers in the sight of the law. 
Concubines Concubines are respectable members of the 
unhappiness. ^^^^h> but there is a decided difiference in their 
position in society. The forms and ceremonies 
are pretty much dispensed with in the " taking 
of a concubine." She is usually from one of 
the inferior classes, or she may have been one 
of the slaves of the family, whose 'beauty of face 
or brightness of wit has attracted the master of 
the house. A young lady of equal rank would 
scorn to be given in marriage as a concubine; 
she would consider the position as altogether 
beneath her. The Chinese are exceedingly jeal- 
ous of the .chastity of their women and surround 
them with many conventional safeguards. An 
unfaithful wife is executed with barbaric cruelty. 

164 



Polygamy 

The conscience of the people as a whole is 
strongly against any loosening of the marriage 
tie, and there is something about the custom of 
polygamy, even when practised for the ends of 
filial piety, which causes people to sj>eak of it on 
the aside, in a low voice or a whisper; it is not 
a proper subject for ordinary conversation. 
While there are instances in which the proper 
wife concurs, or even advises her husband to 
take a concubine, in most cases it forms a subject 
of contention and quarrelling, of heartaches and 
tears. The women quarrel among themselves, 
and there is often cruelty on the part of the hus- 
band. In one of our stations in West China we 
lived for a year next door to a family of official 
rank. The old father of the family was com- 
monly reputed to have beheaded one of his con- 
cubines in a fit of anger, and to have never been 
called to account for it. We had no reason to 
doubt the accuracy of the story. 

Why should the women not quarrel? What 
else can be expected from such unnatural rela- 
tions? Moreover, these unfortunate women are 
seldom able to read their own language. They 
have therefore no books or newspapers. They 
have nothing to talk about but gossip and scandal. 
They have nothing with which to fill their time. 
Why should they not be envious and jealous and 
quarrelsome ? 



i6s 



CHINESE GIRLS AND WOMEN. 

WOMEN MEDICAL 

MISSIONARIES. 



"The same persons constantly return, bringing their 
relatives and friends, and thus the circles of influence 
perpetually widen. In the poor man's home, where the 
newly-born girl baby is not wanted, the woman physician 
does the work of an evangelist by telling of a Heavenly 
Father's love for even this tiny babe. To the crowd on 
the street, where a woman has taken poison and thrown 
herself on the doorstep of her adversary to die, she tells 
the story of redeeming love. Many a sufferer turns to 
kiss the shadow of these Santa Filomenas as it falls 
upon the wall in hospital or home." — Arthur H. Smith, 
in "Rex Christus." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

chinese girls and women.— women 
medical missionaries, 

Chinese; Giri.s and Women. 

The women of China are not secluded in Girls 
harems as, are those of some other non-Christian g^^j-^g^; 
lands, although they have not the freedom of the 
women in Christian countries. Little girls play 
about the courtyards and even on the streets, 
much the same as the boys. They occasionally 
attend the same schools, and are taught in the 
same schoolroom. But when they grow up a bit, 
and are about ten or twelve years of age, they are 
kept from school entirely, or they are put into 
girls' schools. They are guarded very carefully 
by parents or guardians, whether at school or at 
home, until marriage has been arranged. This 
last is a matter for the parents of the young 
people to arrange ; rarely do the individuals con- 
cerned have a word to say, even though they 
may be consulted. 

Not until some lime after the birth of When the 
her first child does the young mother enjoy tj^g streets, 
a rqeasure of freedom. She may then go 
on the street sometimes to see a near neighbor, 
or she may go to church and Sunday School 

169 



Heal the Sick 

without being compelled to go in a sedan chair. 
I have been speaking of women of the ordinary- 
working or merchant classes. Women of the 
literary and official classes seldom, if ever, go on 
the street afoot. They must always call a sedan 
chair, and for the most part, especially if young, 
they must go with curtains down, so that they 
are quite invisible. Within the last few years a 
change has been noticeable in these respects. 
There is a marked disposition on the part of 
women of rank to go on the street on occasion, 
and to walk with attendants, proud apparently 
of their natural feet and of their new-found 
liberty in using them. In March, 1909, the wife 
of the Viceroy of Szechwan, with a number of 
attendants, visited the great annual exhibition 
held a mile from the south gate of Chengtu. 
Amid the great crowds of people of all classes 
she walked about, seeing the sights quite uncon- 
cernedly, only proud to be able to lead in the 
new custom. So far, there has not been the 
slightest indignity offered nor the least incon- 
venience experienced by those Chinese ladies who 
have dared to be seen walking on the streets. 
Elderly women of the middle or lower classes go 
on the streets at all times without embarrassment 
and with perfect freedom ; and they meet with 
no indignity or lack of respect from anyone. 
The place of The female infant, as a rule, is not welcome 
the ff^ily. ^^ the Chinese home. This is the result of vari- 
ous beliefs and customs, of which the most im- 

170 



Chinese Girls and Women 

portant is probably ancestor worship. Sons are 
required in order to perpetuate this form of wor- 
ship, therefore daughters are not so important 
or. necessary in the family. Daughters are 
simply married into some other family as soon 
as they are of marriageable age, say, thirteen to 
fifteen, and therefore they are not permanent 
members of the family. Moreover, a vast number 
of Chinese families are so poor that they feel that 
they cannot earn enough to feed the " extra 
mouth/* added to the number, especially when 
the extra one is a girl. So they quickly put the 
little one out of the way. The horrible deed is 
accomplished by strangling, drowning, or by burial 
alive. In West China the evidences of the practice 
are not in sight. The casual visitor sees nothing 
and hears little, but the medical missionary learns 
of the practice from his patients. " How many 
children have you ? " we ask ; " Four," is the 
reply, and in the earlier years I was deceived by 
that reply, and imagined that I had received defi- 
nite information. Later, I learned always to 
add, "And how many girls?" Then came the 
further information, "Three girls." In other 
words, four children and three girls, a total of 
seven sons and daughters ! The important 
children are the boys, the girls are of so little 
account that they are not ordinarily reckoned. 
This is a measure of the esteem in which girls, 
as compared with the boys, are held in the 
family. 

171 



its causes. 



Heal the Sick 

Infanticide Some mothers destroy their girls rather than 
and some of ^^-^^^ ^j^^jj. feet .so reluctant are they to put their 
little ones to the torture of footbinding. But 
poverty is the most common reason assigned, and 
the fathers are more often responsible than the 
mothers. I well recollect hearing from an intel- 
ligent country woman, who carpe to our dispen- 
sary, the story as to the number of her girls that 
had been buried alive, or thrown into a cess- 
pool by their father, because, he declared, 
he could not earn enough to feed them. 
The tears were in her eyes as she spoke, 
and she added, " You don't know how cruel 
some of the men in the country are." I have 
heard similar stories from others. There is much 
less of this sort of thing in the cities, partly be- 
cause public opinion would not justify it, and 
partly because other ways are found for the dis- 
posal of girl babies. Infants from a few days to a 
year or two old are laid on the street, in the door- 
way of some compound, or beside the road near 
the home of some well-known benevolent fam- 
ily. A small bunch of straw serves to keep the 
thinly-clad infant off the ground or cold stones. 
A paper is pinned on her clothes giving the all- 
important " eight characters," that is, the year, 
month, day, and hour of her birth. Her name is 
of course not stated, because that would indicate 
her parentage, and her parents prefer not to be 
known, for it is a shameful thing, according to 
Chinese standards, for parents to discard their 

172 



Chinese Girls and Women 

children. The " eight characters " are important, 
because they are necessary in arranging her 
marriage, if she survives ; and they are also re- 
quired for her spirit tablet after her death. I 
have many times seen this sight — the little one 
placed beside the street or in a doorway. It is 
very commonly done in the evening or early 
morning, when there are few abroad to see. 
There the little mite lies, crying piteously be- 
cause of the cold or hunger, or of both, some- 
times because of illness and pain. The hope is 
that some kind-hearted person will pick the 
child up and adopt it. It is from these poor 
little waifs that our Jennie Ford Orphanage in 
Chengtu is recruited. In the cities these casta- 
ways are usually picked up, as expected, but 
many of them are so wasted with disease or from 
hard usage or starvation, that they do not live 
long, even with the best of care. 

Another of the "tender mercies of the ?®°^® ^f ^so°® 

for early 

wicked " is the early betrothal which is the rule in betrothal. 

China. It may take place any time from birth 
to twelve or fifteen years of age. There is a 
case on record — and probably it is only one of a 
great many^ — in which an agreement was made 
between two neighboring women before their 
two children were born, that if they should be 
boy and girl, they should be betrothed ; the 
agreement was carried out. Among the wealthy 
and the official classes, the girls may not be be- 
trothed or marriedfUntil twenty. This is especi- 

173 



Heal the Sick 

ally noticeable of late years. As in footbinding 
so in this matter, custom or fashion is the reason 
universally assigned. The very early betrothal 
is especially common among the poor, because it 
costs less than when the children are older. 
Fifty cents or a dollar, or at most two dollars, 
will cover all the necessary expense in infancy, 
whereas ten dollars or tens of dollars would be 
required later. Another reason sometimes as- 
signed is the advice of the f ortune-tellet^. This 
ignorant deceiver, for various reasons, all of 
which tend ultimately to ^his own advantage, 
advises an early betrothal. Failure to do as he 
says will be visited with dire calamity, therefore 
the parents immediately look out for some other 
child suitable for a match. Early betrothal is 
often entered into because it is convenient. 
There is debt in the family, or other adverse cir- 
cumstances, as the death of the father or of both 
parents. The little girl has no proper guardian, 
and betrothal is the easiest way to dispose of 
her. Furthermore, a woman will often arrange 
for her son's engagement, and the little daughter- 
in-law that is to be is brought to her mother-in- 
law's house as soon as she is old enough to work, 
there to be the maid-of -all- work, the drudge and 
slave to her future husband's family. Even 
among the rich it is sometimes simply a matter 
of dollars and cents. It not only costs less for 
the early betrothal, but the daughter-in-law costs 
less to keep in the mother-in-law's home than a 

174 



Chinese Girls and Women 

servant. If the mother-in-'law reviles and beats 
a servant, the latter will leave, but the daughter- 
in-law must take it all, including reviling and 
beating, and go on doing the work just the 
same. 

The evil results of early betrothal are seen in ^^^^ of 

early 
the mismating, which becomes evident by or be- betrothal 

fore the time for marriage. At the Women's 
Conference held at Shanghai in November, 1900, 
Miss Culverwell gave an account of a very sad 
case which came under her notice. The children 
were betrothed when very young. The man be- 
came an utter rogue and gambler, living on the 
streets ; the girl, the youngest and the pet of the 
family — her people were farmers — grew to be a 
very sweet, beautiful, intelligent girl. Her poor 
old mother's heart broke at the thought of giv- 
ing her over to the wicked family, who would 
doubtless sell her for a good price. The girl's 
mother tried in many ways to get the betrothal 
reversed, but no ! The man said that, dead or 
alive, he would have the girl. There was no law 
to prevent it, for the girl's mother was not rich 
enough to carry the matter through the courts. 
The old mother died of a broken heart, and the 
girl tried to commit suicide, first by opium 
poisoning, then by throwing herself into the 
river. She was saved by her own relatives and 
sent to her husband's home, there to experience 
such cruelties as we who live in Christian lands 
can scarcely imagine. 

175 



Heal the Sick 



The 

" undivided 

family" 

brings 

troubles. 



Because they were betrothed in infancy and 
there is no law to enable them to break the be- 
trothal, young men in China have again and 
again been compelled to marry idiot girls, who 
were unable to feed or dress themselves. 

The Chinese have a rooted objection to '* divid- 
ing the family," as it is called ; that is to say, 
it is considered to be always the proper thing for 
the son to bring his new wife home to the paren- 
tal roof, where she may wait on her mother-in- 
law. There may be three or four or more 
daughters-in-law in one house. There may be 
cases of harmony between them, but these are 
few. As a rule there is constant strife as to 
who shall be head of the house, with the balance 
always in favor of the mother-in-law. The 
daughter-in-law expects to be abused, and in 
many cases she submits meekly to a certain 
amount, though this attitude more often than not 
draws down upon her the more terrible wrath of 
her mistress. She is reviled, beaten and pinched, 
till her body is covered with bruises ; she is 
struck with sticks or whips, till she is seriously 
wounded, or until she resorts to suicide. The 
constant contention in the household makes life 
perfectly miserable for all its members. In the 
case of one of our newly-married Christian 
young men, I did not hesitate to advise him to 
come away, and set up a home for himself. The 
result proved the wisdom of the arrangement. 

176 



Chinese Girls and Women 

The Chinese betrothal is supposed to be in- A real 
violable, but new China will make changes in °^® ® ^^' 
this, as in many other customs. Indeed, the 
changes are already in progress. A conspicuous 
instance was that of one of our Christian young 
men in Chengtu a short time since. His widowed 
mother had betrothed him, when he was perhaps 
fifteen or sixteen, to a respectable girl in the 
neighborhood. His mother was not a Christian, 
neither was the girl whom she had selected. The 
latter had, however, a considerable fortune as a 
dowry, as such things go in China, and the match 
was therefore regarded by the mother as a very 
desirable one. But alas for her plans ! Her 
son, who had been one of our students for many 
years, and who was working his way up as an 
assistant teacher in our school in Chengtu, occa- 
sionally saw in church one of the pupil-teachers 
of the Woman's Missionary Society's School for 
Girls. This young woman was a bright, earnest 
Christian, a good student, and a successful 
teacher. By mysterious ways known to Cupid, 
they heard about each other and were mutually 
attracted. The next thing we knew, there was 
trouble in the home of the young man, for he 
wished to break the engagement arranged by his 
mother. He declared that the young girl to 
whom he was betrothed was not a Christian. She 
was quite ignorant, had had no school advan- 
tages, and had also bound feet ! Moreover, his 
mother had not consulted him in effecting- his 

12 177 



Heal the Sick 

betrothal, and he thought she ought to have done 
so. The sum and substance of the whole matter 
was, that he wished to be released from his 
betrothal, in order that he might marry the young 
teacher. There were many meetings and many 
earnest consultations, in which the foreign mis- 
sionary used his best offices towards justice and 
satisfaction. I fear the young man did not get 
much sympathy in his effort to break with long- 
established Chinese custom. But he was deter- 
mined, and ultimately succeeded. The first 
betrothal was broken without any serious conse- 
quences, and a few months or a year later the 
two pupil-teachers were happily married. 
women *** Chinese husband and wife do not sit together at 

the same table, except among the very poorest 
classes. Among those who go upon the street, 
husband and wife never walk together; women 
walk with women, and men with men, or alone. 
In recent years our missionary ladies walk freely 
upon the streets, without meeting with the slight- 
est unpleasantness. But I well remember when 
my wife and I first began to go out together. 
Then we did attract attention, and some of the 
Chinese women in our neighborhood were re- 
ported ito have remarked that they '' would be 
glad if their husbands would walk shoulder to 
shoulder with them, as the missionaries did " ! 
Alas for the Chinese wife ! She is not respected, 
much less honored, by her husband, as are wives 
in Christian lands. When we call upon a Chinese 

178 




5 ''5 



bo 

w 

w 

o 

W 
H 



Chinese Girls and Women 

friend, we never see the lady of the household; 
she keeps carefully out of sight. Or if for any 
cause she should appear, she would not be intro- 
duced; that would be altogether beneath the 
dignity of her husband. If he has occasion to 
refer to his wife in conversation, he does not 
speak of her as Mrs. JJ. or Mrs. Chang, but of his 
" unworthy inner one," that is, the one who lives 
in the inner rooms. His wife is not his equal, 
either in fact or in his esteem. She is unedu- 
cated; sfhe cannot read or write her own lan- 
guage ; she knows nothing of books or of business, 
of government or of laws. She is not a help- 
meet; she is a necessity to her husband in order 
that he may raise ,a family, and so perpetuate his 
liame and family ancestor worship. She is the 
property of her husband, and may be put away 
almost at his will. It is very easy for the hus- 
band to divorce his wife, but next to an impossi- 
bility for her to divorce her husband. He may 
beat her if he chooses, and at intervals he does 
so choose. She is his property; can he not 
do as he pleases with his own? I had a 
woman with a broken forearm as a patient, 
who described volubly how the fracture oc- 
curred — she was attempting to parry the blows 
of her husband! There is a common saying 
that women are always in subjection: as girls, to 
their fathers ; as wives, to their husbands ; and as 
widows, to their sons! Widows commonly re- 
marry, although this course is considered unbe- 

179 



Heal the Sick 

coming ; they are regarded as showing insufficient 
respect to the deceased husband. 

"The. Christian idea of woman's position 
differs from the Chinese as day from night. 
Only by the spread of the new ideas as to the 
dignity of womanhood can we ever hope to see 
the evil customs of China changed. But little 
can be accomplished by attacking them from the 
outside. We must implant new ideas, and as 
these take root and grow the evil customs will 
then slowly wither and die away." 



China a 
great field 
for women 
physicians. 



WoMKN MedicaIv Missionaries. 

The Empire of China presents opportunities 
altogether unsurpassed elsewhere in the world 
for the work of women as medical missionaries. 
This is because of the extreme need of the 
women of China, and because they can be 
reached more easily by the woman physician 
than by the man. We have no zenana or harem in 
China, and the women are not specially secluded. 
A few come to our general hospitals to be 
treated by men physicians, but they come much 
more freely to our Woman's Missionary Society 
Hospital for treatment by women physicians. 
In diseases peculiar to women and at the lying- 
in period, women physicians have the greatest 
possible advantage, for these are the diseases and 
the times which bring the greatest suffering to 
Chinese women. 

i8o 



Women Medical Missionaries 

Women have all the ordinary diseases toFoot-bind- 
whi<?h men are subject, and a few besides. Foot- ^^^ ^^ 
binding is both a direct and an indirect cause disease, 
of disease. Directly, it causes sores, which 
are not infrequently tubercular, and these lead 
to disease of the bones of the feet. Abscesses 
and sinuses may form, and the child often 
succumbs, or she may live, but with permanently 
crippled feet, so that walking is difficult or im- 
possible. Indirectly, the bound feet, through 
pain and lack of exercise, cause the girl or 
woman to lose her appetite and become pale and 
thin. A Chinese woman realizes that her poor 
bound foot is not handsome, and she will not 
remove the bandages and expose her feet to the 
male doctor, except under strong protest ; but she 
will allow the woman doctor to see them and 
treat them with much less reluctance. 

Because of lack of exercise and other causes, General 
woman have many disorders of digestion, with 
a great variety of attending symptoms. They 
have also the usual coughs and colds, inflam- 
mations and fevers, eye and skin diseases. 

But it is when women need treatment for their Cliinese 
numerous " diseases of women " that they suffer, doctors and 
mi 1 1 • • /-* medicine. 

They do call in their own ignorant Chinese 

doctors, who feel the pulse with their customary 
gravity, and write out long prescriptions ; they 
swallow dose after dose of nasty medicines, but 
are no better, -rather worse. Then they get 
recipes from their aunts or their grandmothers, 

i8i 



Heal the Sick 



Medical 
care when 
children 
are born. 



A call from 
the women 
of China to 
the women 
of Christian 
lands. 



and go themselves or send trusty messengers to 
pull the required plants from the fields or road- 
sides. The whole armful is boiled together after 
the usual fashion, and they dose themselves with 
the resulting liquor. Sometimes the efficacy of 
the doses which they prepare for themselves 
would seem to be in direct ratio to the nastiness. 

It is at the period when woman needs the 
most skilful and patient care that they suffer 
most. At these times their doctors are not called, 
but the midwives, who are just as ignorant as 
any other class of Chinese women about such 
things and more meddlesome and venturesome. 
They have no more idea of the importance of 
cleanliness and of quiet intelligent nursing than 
had Sary Gamp of old, while the methods they 
use in difficult casfes are revolting, no less for the 
ignorance and actual mismanagement displayed 
than for the cruelty. It is not at all uncommon for 
such cases to be protracted through several days 
of weary agony, until death comes to the patient's 
relief. Not a few Chinese women owe their lives 
to the prompt and efficient aid given them by the 
women medical missionaries, after they had 
already suffered untold tortures from neglect or 
maltreatment, or both. 

Women medical missionaries gain access to 
Chinese women in their homes as men cannot. 
They are carried in their sedan chairs directly 
through the upper or innermost court of the 
compound, and enter the women's apartments 

182 



Women Medical Missionaries 

at once. The women and girls crowd around 
them, and confidence is won immediately. Over 
and over again does the woman medical mission- 
ary hear the remark, " I did not know before 
that there was a woman doctor, or I would have 
come to you." And they do come, from all 
classes, wives and daughters of wealthy mer- 
chants and officials, together with multitudes of 
women and girls of the middle and lower classes. 
Representatives of all these classes may come at 
times to the men doctors, but there is no question 
that they come more freely to be treated by 
women. That is to say, they come in larger 
numbers, and they open their hearts to the women 
as they do not to the men; the influence, there- 
fore, which the women physicians are able to 
exert upon the women of China is proportion- 
ately deep and strong. The appalling need of 
Chinese women is calling in tones, ever louder 
and more insistent, to the Christian women of 
Canada and other western lands for the help 
which they alone can give. 

It is sometimes taken for granted that only Married 
single women are eligible to carry on medical Jhe^^ wo^k 
mission work for women in China ; that married in the 
women doctors should spend their whole time ^^^^®° 
in the care of home and children, and take no 
active part in medical mission work. With this 
view of the case I am wholly at variance. Medical 
women in Canada do not by any means always 
cease the practice of their professiion, because of 

183 



Heal the Sick 

having taken upon themselves the responsibilities 
of married life, and most of the organized Chris- 
tian work carried on by women in the home lands 
is done by married women. Single women in 
China, as well as those who are married, have 
to take time to look after their homes. Children 
take up the time of the married woman — I 
would not for one moment suggest that the 
home should be without children ; it is not com- 
plete till they come, and there should be at least 
several in each home — but she is able to 
engage cheap help, and to train her helpers so 
that they become efficient. Moreover there are 
not ihe social duties to be attended to in China 
which take so much time in the homeland, so that 
if the married woman in China can find or make 
time for duties outside her own home, much 
more can the married woman in China find time 
for such work. In the very nature of the case, 
she cannot give so many hours to Christian work 
as the single woman, but what she can give 
ought to be accepted and used. It is my 
candid judgment that those missionary socie- 
ties, which make no provision whatever for any 
systematic organized Christian work by their 
married women, whether such married women 
are doctors, nurses, or teachers, or gifted leaders 
in evangelistic work, fail to make use of a mos-t 
valuable asset. 



184 



THE MISSION DISPENSARY— THE 

MISSION HOSPITAL.— SOME 

PATIENTS I HAVE 

HAD. 



" In trying to decide as to your duty, do not empha- 
size too much any contrast which you may have in mind 
between evangelical work and medical work. True 
medical work is evangelical. Our Lord never separat'ed' 
the two, but preached and taught and healed as He 
went, and so should we. If we do not combine the two 
we cannot succeed. Our remedies frequently fail, but 
Christ as the remedy for sin never fails." — W. H. 
Parkesj M.D. 



CHAPTER IX. 

the mission dispensary.— the mission 

hospital,— some patients 

i have had. 

Th^ Mission Dispensary. 

The Mission Dispensary is usually associated The 
with the Mission Hospital, but is sometimes and^^i^ad-^ 
carried on independently. It may, therefore, be vantages of 
simply a spare room in the Mission compound, ary without 
in which patients are seen and all medicines dis- hospital 
pensed. Patients come in at all hours, when the ^o^^^^t^o^* 
doctor is at home, and he sees them one by one. 
He probably charges them a very small fee, if 
any, and one assistant suffices for his purposes, 
or perhaps he uses no assistant at all. The 
Mission Doctor's wife is often his only assistant. 
She dispenses all his medicines, does much of the 
bandaging, and attends to many other duties 
about the single room of the dispensary. There 
are some advantages in this simple form of work. 
The doctor is able to get near to his patients. 
They come into a room in his dwelling com- 
pound ; that is, into a room of his house. There 
is little or no formality, and therefore a good 
opportunity for getting acquainted and for 
impressing the Gospel message. But there are 

187 



Heal the Sick 



The 

hospital 
dispensary. 



The 

waiting 
room. 



also disadvantages. Many patients come whose 
complaints cannot be properly attended to in the 
dispensary. They need to be under observation 
for a few days or weeks, or require a slight opera- 
tion which cannot be performed with safety in 
the dispensary, and so all Mission doctors long 
for the time when they may be provided with 
hospital wards with at least a moderately com- 
plete equipment. 

A dispensary which is part of a hospital is 
sometimes called the out-patient department, and 
is a much more highly organized institution than 
the independent dispensary above referred to. 
It does the same work as the other, but more 
of it, and with less expenditure of time and 
energy. The hospital dispensary, or out-patient 
department, comprises a large waiting room, a 
consultation room, a private consultation room, 
a surgical dressing room, a dark room for examin- 
ation of eye, ear, nose, and throat, and a drug 
dispensing room. 

First of all, the waiting room. This is fur- 
nished with long benches to accommodate fifty 
to one hundred persons. It is well lighted, and 
is ornamented with tracts, scripture portions, 
Christian calendars, etc., hung or pasted on the 
walls, so that all may read. There is probably 
also a notice, " No Spitting or Smoking Allowed." 
At the door sits the registrar. All patients are 
required to record their names, with address, age, 
occupation, etc., in the dispensary register. Each 

i88 



The Mission Dispensary 

one pays the nominal fee of thirty cash (one and 
a half cents), and for this amount he may come 
for a month, or sometimes for longer, without 
being asked to pay again. Each patient is pro- 
vid'cd with a number, written on a slender slip 
of bamboo, and with a prescription form; sup- 
plied with these, he takes his seat to await the 
hour of openiing. I always begin to see patients 
immediately after dinner; that is, about one 
o'clock, or one fifteen. Fifteen or twenty minutes 
before the time, our hospital evangelist steps upon 
the little platform at the upper end of the wait- 
ing room and reads a portion of scripture, which 
he proceeds to expound. Sometimes the foreign 
medical missionary preaches instead of the 
Chinese evangelist. On the whole the patients 
listen wdl. There is never any opposition ; there 
may be indifference, and perchance silent con- 
tempt for the foreign doctrines, but there is, at 
least, outward respect. 

At the hour assigned, the patients are invited ^^® 
to enter the consultation room ten at a time, rooms. 
Twenty or thirty per cent, of the total are women. 
These are invited to enter first, and only after 
the last woman is seen are the men requested to 
come in. As the patients come in they are seated 
on a long bench by the wall, and one by one 
called to the chair near the doctor's desk for 
examination, diagnosis, and prescription. Those 
with wounds or ulcers are asked to pass into the 
surgical dressing room, where there are facilities 

189 



Heal the Sick 



How the 
doctor gives 
the Gospel 
message. 



Some early 
experiences 
in West 
China. 



for attending to their especial needs. For such 
as need special examinations, there are the private 
consultation room and the dark room. But, 
sooner or later, each one receives a prescription, 
which is taken into the drug dispensing room. 
Here he receives over the counter at the hands 
of a Chinese assistant the medicines prescribed 
with full directions for taking. He passes right 
on through to a passage leading back to the main 
gate of the hospital, and so to the street. 

While the patient is with the foreign doctor in 
the consultation room, the latter presents him 
with a copy of one of the Gospels and perhaps 
a tract as well, and asks him to take them home 
to read. The missionary may also drop some 
seed of the Gospel message in the hope that it 
may take root and grow. In the waiting room 
each patient hears the Gospel preached; he may 
read a tract on the wall and hear something about 
it from the Registrar who is, if possible, a Chris- 
tian man. In all these ways we seek to fulfil 
the Great Commission. But more especially in 
the doing good, in the relief of pain or distress, 
in kindly cheer and encouragement, we attempt 
to give the message of life and love, the mes- 
sage which has cheered the downcast, encouraged 
the faint-hearted, and comforted the sorrowful 
in all lands and climes and amid all races of 
mankind. 

In the earlier years of our dispensary work in 
West China, we had some curious experiences. 

190 



The Mission Dispensary 

The people were at that time suspicious and 
distrustful of the foreigner. We were not well 
understood ; our motives for coming to China at 
all were suspected; our motives in doing free 
medical work were the subject of much conversa- 
tion and speculation on the part of those who 
came to know anything about us. Many who 
came to us for treatment and received benefits 
at our hands were yet unconvinced of our dis- 
interestedness. Those who knew us by reputa- 
tion only were entirely free to assign the very 
worst motives to the foreign medical missionary. 
Two women came into the dispensary together 
on one occasion. They manifested a good deal 
of alarm, stood near the door, and were careful 
to leave it slightly ajar, with the object, without 
a doubt, of being assured of a way of escape in 
case they should be threatened by any awful fate ! 

Some years later I had an amusing experience ; A patient 
amusing to me, but perhaps not to the poor ° r°'* 
victim ! One day, amid the throng, I noticed a my good 
man standing, while ofhers sat. I politely invited intentions, 
him to sit down, as the others were doing. He 
replied that he could not sit down! His hip 
joints were stiffened by disease to such an extent 
that he could sit down only with the greatest 
difficulty. I invited him to come into the private 
consultation room, where we had a rattan couch. 
Now this couch was of local manufacture, and 
had a light rail along one side. I turned it so 
as to get the best light from the window, but 

191 



Heal the Sick 

this brought the rail on the outside. I sent one 
of my assistants to call the carpenter, who was at 
work on the premises, and to save time I men- 
tioned that he should tell the man to bring his saw, 
chisel and hammer; for I was determined that 
that offending rail on the couch should be removed 
at once, so that my patient could lie dowti. 
I asked him to wait a moment and I would 
examine him; in the meantime, I stepped back 
into the consultation room to continue seeing 
other patients. Almost immediately my poor 
man with the stiff hips appeared, waddling 
across the floor. I wondered if he had mis- 
understood, and asked him what w'as the matter. 
He replied that he would step outside for a 
moment, and made some trifling excuse. I went 
on with my work. The carpenter came in, very 
quickly removed the couch-rail, and went out. 
Then I called for the man with the stiff hips. 
I looked for him everywhere, but he was not to 
be found. Enquiry at the gate revealed the fact 
that he had come out from the consultation room 
with a look of terror on his face, had gone out 
of the gate, and waddled off down the street 
as fast as his crippled legs could carry him. He 
had misunderstood the intended use of the car- 
penter's saw, chisel, and hammer, and must have 
congratulated himself on his narrow escape. 

Fifty to one jt usually took me from one o'clock till dark 
hundred , ., . , ^^ , < i 

patients to see and prescribe for the fifty to one hundred 

a day. patients who came each dispensary day for treat- 

192 



The Mission Hospital 

ment. For a few weeks, on one occasion, from 
one hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty 
persons came each dispensary day. That was 
about all I wanted to attend to on one afternoon. 
Sometimes it was seven o'clock and often away 
after dark before we finished and went to supper, 
tired and hungry, but glad for the abundant 
opportunities for service. 

The Mission Hospitai,. 

From among the throngs of patients who Growing 
crow'd the dispensary, we select those suitable ponfidence 
for treatment in the wards and invite them to missionary 
come in. In the earlier years, that is to say, doctor, 
before 1900, there was often some difficulty in 
persuading these men and women to entrust 
themselves to us. They hesitated to come and 
live right in the foreigner's buildings, to so put 
themselves in our power. From the first we 
got at least a few of those we invited. With 
the years their confidence grew, until nowadays 
w€ have no trouble at all getting the Chinese 
to come into our wards. Indeed, as in church 
work, the problem is now rather to make a suit- 
able selection from those who present them- 
selves. An incident will illustrate : One day, ^pj^^ ^^j^ 
while I was busy, as usual, trying to see the who was 
numbers who were in attendance, one man who ^^ ^»^^ome 
presented himself at my desk immediately threw in" the 
down a few hundred cash and said, " Ther^ is ^ospi**^- 
13 193 



Heal the Sick 

my board money, I am coming in for treatment." 
I hastened to explain that I must first examine 
him, diagnose his case, and see whether he were 
suitable for treatment in the wards. He replied 
that a friend of his, naming him, had been in our 
hospital, had got well and returned to his village ; 
so now, he, the speaker, had brought his board 
money for several days, and wanted to come 
in right away. We had only twenty-five beds 
at most. On that particular day, I had only one 
vacant bed, and I did not want to give it to any 
but a most deserving case. Our beds were usually 
full, and often several patients were awaiting 
their turn to come in. I examined my patient, 
and found that he was one of those who could 
just as well take his medicine three times a week 
from the dispensary, and live at an inn or the 
house of a friend. The man pleaded to be taken 
in, but I had to be firm with him, finally telling 
him that it was quite impossible, that he must 
take his medicine home with him, and come each 
dispensary day for treatment. He took his pre- 
scription and disappeared. Next morning, as T 
started on my rounds, I discovered my friend 
of the previous afternoon comfortably ensconced 
in bed. He had said that he was coming in, 
and sure enough he did. He had gone along 
to the ward and announced to the attendant, 
probably in much the same tone of voice with 
which he had met me, that he " was coming in." 
The attendant ha,d supposed it was all right, had 

194 




SOME OF OUR FIRST HOSPITAL BUILDINGS. 

Old Hospital, Chengtu, 1896, Women's Ward. 

Old Hospital, Chengtu, 1896, Men's Ward. 
Ruins of First Hospital, Chengtu, after Riots of 1895. 

Hospital, Kiating. 



The Mission Hospital 

put him through the bath-tub in accordance with 

the usual practice, and put him into bed. 

In the wards we have an excellent opportunity ^^e 

, . , , . unequalled 

to get acquamted with the patients ; we can get opportunity 

close to them ; they stay with us for several days ^ *^.^ 

or weeks, or in some cases for several months, ward. 

We see them' every day, often several times a day. 

They get good food and plenty of it, good clean 

bedding and hospital clothing, and kind, careful, 

medical and surgical treatment. 

I have seen men come into the wards, fear- 
ful and doubting, but next day, after they had 
had time and opportunity for conversation with 
others in the same ward, they would be as happy 
and smiling as the rest. They had learned 
something of what all the others were ready and 
willing to tell them of their own experience of 
the foreigner's skill and of his kindness, or of 
what they have heard of the cures that have 
been wrought. So they gain confidence, and this 
is a big part of the battle, both for physical health 
and as preparation for the sowing of the Gospel 
seed. 

Daily services are held in the largest ward Teaching 
or in the hospital chapel with the Mission doctor ^u ^^.j^g^^^^ 
in charge or with the hospital evangelist, a hospital. 
Chinese, as leader. Christian hymns are sung, 
a portion of scripture is read, all the patients 
who can read taking part, and finally prayer is 
oflFered. Copies of the New Testament, hymn 

195 



Heal the Sick 



Results of 

hospital 

teaching. 



books, as well as other Christian books, are placed 
freely in the hands of the patients. The Lord's 
Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the 
Apostles' Creed are written in large characters, 
neatly mounted, and hung on the walls of the 
ward. While we try always to have a Chinese 
Christian evangelist in every hospital, and he is 
given much work to do, yet it is agreed that the 
foreign mission doctor must do a certain amount 
of direct evangelistic work in order to get the best 
results. He must not leave it all to his Chinese 
helper. The aim is to develop and conserve a 
thoroughly Christian and evangelical atmosphere 
in and about the institution, so that all who come 
in touch with the Mission hospital will feel and 
know a power there which is not of man. 

The longer a patient stays with us, the more 
likely is he to be converted and to go from us a 
professing Christian. But I am entirely safe in 
saying that every patient goes from us strongly 
prejudiced in our favor, and that is prejudiced 
in favor of the Gospel message with which we 
are identified. We have had baptisms in the hos- 
pital, but they are the exception rather than the 
rule. More are received into the Church some 
time after leaving the hospital. In any case, we 
make friends of the people, and wherever we go 
in town, village or country we meet them. They 
welcome us, and introduce us to their village or 
country friends in such a way as to prepare the 
way for the cause we have at heart. 

196 



The Mission Hospital 

The Chinese make good patients. We have The Chinese 
more surgical than medical cases, partly, I think, ^^ ^^ ^^° ^* 
because the superiority of scientific surgery is 
more easily demonstrated to the Chinese than that 
of scientific medicine. They take anesthetics 
well, perhaps because they do not realize the 
danger, and recover readily from even severe 
operations. We have not yet had an untoward 
result from the administration of anesthetics in 
our hospitals in West China, and we have had 
many hundreds of cases during the past eigh- 
teen years. Naturally we have selected our 
cases, and have done our best to avoid having 
many deaths in our hospitals from any cause. 
During the first eight or ten years, I think we had 
no death in our wards. It would have been dis- 
astrous to our work, for the Chinese are so 
suspicious and so ready to ascribe an evil motive, 
especially if they do not fully understand all that 
goes on. Moreover, they do take advantage of 
such things to their own gain, even though they 
may know perfectly well that no evil was in- 
tended or done. An incident will illustrate: In 
the autumn of 1892, about September, when Dr. 
D. W. Stevenson and I had been less than one 
year in China, I responded to a hurry call to 
see a woman who was reputed to be very ill. I 
was carried in my sedan chair to a courtyard in 
a poor neighborhood not very far from our home. 
The poor woman lay propped up in bed in a very 
serious condition from cholera. The disease had 

197 



Heal the Sick 

not quite disappeared from the city after the 
summer epidemic. I knew of the danger of 
giving medicine when the chances were not in 
favor of the patient's recovery, but yielded to 
the soHcitations of the husband, and to the hope 
that her Hfe might be saved even yet, and gave 
her one dose. I gave directions as to her care, 
and returned home. Late that evening another 
hurry call came; an old man had fallen in a fit 
which might be apoplexy; would I go at once? 
Again I was carried in the same direction as 
earlier that day, and after travelling by devious 
routes, found myself finally put down in the same 
courtyard. I did not at first recognize it in the 
dark. I was shown into the same sick-room in 
which I had unfortunately administered that one 
dose of medicine. The husband appeared, walked 
quickly to the bed, threw down the sheet, and 
showed me the dead body of his wife. I had 
been brought by a trick, and was now trapped. 
I could hardly take it in, but appearances were 
certainly that way. God's providence was over 
me, or the results might have been more serious. 
I noticed that an animated discussion was being 
carried on among a group of men and women 
in an outer room ; evidently there was a difference 
of opinion. Some argued and talked vigorously, 
and yet in suppressed tones, for one course of 
action, while others were no less assertive for 
some other course. At that time I did not know 
enough of the Chinese language to be just sure 

198 



The Mission Hospital 

what they were arguing for ; but felt certain that 
it boded no good to me. In the midst of the 
heated discussion, I walked quietly but quickly 
past the crowd out into the courtyard, and 
immediately entered my sedan chair. I was sur- 
prised that I had been quite unopposed, but I 
was not yet out of the trap. The sedan chair was 
surrounded, the chair-bearers were hindered from 
lifting the chair and starting off as they attempted 
to do, their lantern was suddenly extinguished, 
and a small melee was in progress with the sedan 
chair for the centre. The light bamboo frame 
would not have stood very long, but all at once the 
arguments of the more peaceful faction seemed to 
prevail, and my chair was picked up and carried 
out into the street, and without undue delay I 
found myself in our own compound. A noisy 
crowd had followed, and entered the outer court 
of the compound with me. Their purpose was 
soon made known. The husband of the woman 
carried an infant child in his arms, and respect- 
fully asked for money with which to bury his 
dead wife. On the surface, the matter appeared 
very simple — it was a straight case of poverty 
and begging, and it was quite optional whether 
I gave anything. But I was assured that I was 
confronted with a very common and very despic- 
able kind of blackmail. If I declined to con- 
tribute anything, this man, with his relatives, 
would industriously spread evil rumors all over 
the neighborhood, or, if possible, over the whole 

199 



Heal the Sick 



When we 
could not 
cure. 



city, to the effect that we foreigners had poisoned 
his wife. Such evil rumoi*s might result only in 
loss of patients, or it might mean riot, with 
looting, burning, and perhaps bloodshed. I be- 
lieve we acted under good advice when we 
decided to give the man a small amount of money. 
He took away with him 3,000 cash, worth at that 
time about $2.30. While my personal teacher, 
who managed the matter with great skill and 
address, advised paying the amount, and him- 
self handed it over, yet in true Chinese fashion 
he scathingly denounced the method used to 
extort money, and threatened all manner of retri- 
bution if a single word of calumny were breathed 
abroad about the matter. The crowd of people 
took the money an'd departed. We never heard 
another word about the affair; they obeyed the 
teacher's injunctions. 

When, during the first few years of medical 
work, one of our patients resisted all efforts to 
bring him back to health, when, in other words, 
a man was about to die in the hospital, we always 
sent for his relatives to take him away. It was 
not considered wise to have a death in the hospi- 
tal wards. It was feared that evil rumors would 
be circulated with disastrous results. Sometimes 
a patient had no relatives; then we sent for the 
street elder, who in every case was good enough 
to find a place where the poor unfortunate indi- 
vidual might draw his last breath. It seemed 
cruel, and it was cruel to send'a dying man away, 



200 



The Mission Hospital 

but it was quite in accord with Chinese ideas. 
Happily that day has passed, and for some years 
we have had no fear of any evil resulting from 
death in our hospital. We have had a few deaths 
in our Chengtu hospital without any trouble what- 
ever resulting. Our institution has won a place 
for itself in the esteem of the people. One 
must admit, however, that our improved relations 
are due in part to the much better position of 
foreigners generally in interior China. We are 
not so much despised as we used to be ; the masses 
have learned much about the power and prestige 
of foreign nations, of which a few short years 
ago they were in total ignorance. For several 
years we have had friendly relations with even 
the highest provincial officials, something alto- 
gether unheard of during the earlier years. 
I think it was in 1902 that the foreign mission- 
aries of Chengtu first called upon the Viceroy. 
That was in response to a request from the 
Viceroy himself. But from that year onwards, 
calls have been made at certain times, and mis- 
sionaries have been invited to dine with the 
Viceroy, and with other high officials, on more 
than one occasion. Recognition by the Viceroy 
and other officials meant prestige and assured 
position for the missionary wherever he went. 
Many causes, of which medical missionary work 
was undoubtedly one, combined to lead up to 
these greatly improved relations. 

201 



Heal the Sick 



Improved 
relations 
between 
Chinese and 
foreigners. 



One result of these improved relations was 
that we were able to receive in-patients, with 
whom we would formerly have been afraid to 
have anything to do, for fear of death and evil 
rumors. One day word was brought to the 
hospital gate, that out yonder on the open parade 
ground there lay a man dying from wounds 
received at the hands of the magistrate. We 
told those who brought the word to carry the 
man in, which they did. He had fallen into the 
hands of the official for some crime or mis- 
demeanor, and had been severely punished by 
beating with strips of bamboo across the backs 
of his thighs. Without any proper treatment, 
the great wounds resulting had festered and 
grown larger and more painful, till by this time, 
some days after the beating, he was unable to 
walk. He had no relatives in the city, so the 
only place for him was the open parade ground, 
where he had lain exposed to sun and rain. His 
wounds were foul, maggots were crawling from 
the depths of each great raw surface, and the 
man was in high fever. He would soon have 
died from exposure and exhaustion. For this 
reason, and because of the foulness of his wounds, 
we could not place him at once in a ward with 
other patients, so fixed a bed of straw under a 
shelter used as the hospital laundry. Under 
careful treatment his wounds became healthy, 
his fever disappeared, and in a very few days 
the man was among the other patients in the 



202 



Some Patients I Have Had 

ward, going on steadily towards health and 
strength. But if he had died in the hospital 
at that date, we would have suffered no ill 
consequence. 

Some; Patients I Have Had. 

Beggars are common in China. Poverty is The man 
everywhere, and most people live so close to it T *i,r a ^ 
always that it is a very short step from inde- beggar, 
pendence to beggary. Occasionally a man is 
better off as a beggar than he was as an artisan ; 
such a man was probably a lazy workman, or he 
has special capital for the trade of begging. An 
incident in my hospital experience serves to illus- 
trate. One day a workman whose leg was 
broken was carried to our hospital in Chengtu. 
He had fallen from a height a few days pre- 
viously, and received a compound fracture of his 
right ankle. I believe he was one of the two 
patients I ever had, with broken bones, who came 
to me with the broken limb in splints. A " fam- 
ous doctor " (Chinese) had put them on in this 
case. The patient was groaning with pain. On 
removing the splints, the cause was evident: the 
bones were still protruding, the wound was foul, 
and both man and wound were in such condition 
as to warrant nothing more likely than amputa- 
tion. The announcement that he would probably 
have to lose his foot did not seem to worry the 
patient. In order to give him every possible 
enhance, we put him to bed, after thoroughly 

203 



Heal the Sick 

cleansing the wound. Treatment was kept up 
for a few days with what appeared to be favor- 
able results. One day, with his full consent, we 
put him on the operating table, intending to 
amputate if necessary. To our surprise, on exam- 
ination under an anesthetic, we found that heal- 
ing was already in progress. Instead of ampu- 
tating, we gave the wound another thorough 
cleansing, brought the broken bones into apposi- 
tion, and bandaged carefully with splints. When 
the patient awoke in his own bed in the ward, the 
news that he still had two feet, and was likely 
to retain them, filled him with — dismay! We 
suspected at that time, what we were sure of later, 
that our patient had been counting on changing 
his occupation. To become a beggar with only 
one foot appeared much more attractive to him 
than to continue through life as only a carpenter. 
Our friend, the patient, was possessed of a 
remarkable degree of perseverance. He had 
visions of the delights of sitting by the roadside 
day after day, and taking in the contributions 
of the compassionate, and he was not to return, 
without a struggle, to the hard lot of a laborer 
with tools. That night he removed the splints, 
loosened the bandages, and endangered the suc- 
cess of all the work we had done for "him. We 
reasoned with him, and reapplied the dressings 
and splints. Next night he not only removed the 
splints, complaining of the pain, but thrashed 
his leg about in bed so much that he actually dis- 

204 



Some Patients I Have Had 

placed the broken bones once more. Again we 
applied the dressings, this time with the aid of 
an iron splint. We made sure that he would 
not, or could not, tamper with his wound again. 
Alas for our pains! On the following morning 
the iron splint was off, and the wound was in the 
worst condition it had yet been. What were we 
to do with such a refractory patient? 

Now the missionary is always glad to invoke Shingle 
Chinese custom, wherever he can make use of treatment. 
that powerful lever, to aid him in his work. It 
is well known that in China the grown man is a ' 

child to his parents so long as the latter live. 
Or if they have passed away, an uncle may exer- 
cise almost the same authority over him. We 
called in the nearest relative of our patient, who 
happened to be his uncle. The situation was 
explained, and we asked the uncle to remove the 
man at once, as we could do nothing with him. 
The older man pleaded with us to keep him, and 
to cure his foot. He exhorted us and scolded 
his nephew by turns. After much consultation, 
we agreed to keep the ,patient, but on one con- 
dition — 'his uncle should give him a good spank- 
ing. Our condition was promptly accepted, we 
found a shingle, and the uncle applied it heartily. 
The patient's howls could be heard farther than 
his previous groans, but we were given full per- 
mission to reapply the same remedy if in our 
judgment the patient should need it. That night 
the dressings and splints stayed on perfectly. 

205 



Heal the Sick 

I am not sure whether I ought to tell the next 
act in the drama. Next day the patient tied a 
cord around his neck, and made a half-hearted 
attempt to strangle himself. This seemed to be 
the condition for which the uncle had given us 
permission to act on our own responsibility, and 
we acted ! It took only a very few pats with the 
shingle, however, to cure him of this small delin- 
quency, and after this occasion we had no further 
trouble. The wound went right on to good heal- 
ing, and the patient left us some weeks later with 
two good feet, well able, and I trust not unwilling, 
to pursue his trade of carpentering. For our 
part, we had learned a few more characteristics 
of these peculiar people, while we were doing 
one of them good. 
Sight One of the most encouraging diseases of the 

to a little ^y^' ^^^^ which we have to deal, is that one cause 
boy. of blindness which gives the most hope, namely, 

cataract. I well remember my first case. It was 
a boy about twelve years of age, who came to 
us at Kiating during the year in which our 
Mission opened the work there. He was quite 
blind in both eyes, and had to be led by the hand 
as he came in. His mother brought him, and left 
him with us quite cheerfully. He made his 
way about the hospital courtyards with the aid 
of a stick, which he used in the most approved 
blind man's fashion. His face was long, and 
he was grave, rarely smiling or laughing, and 
he was not easily drawn into conversation. First 

206 



Some Patients I Have Had 

one eye was operated on, then the other, and 
good results were obtained in each case. After 
a few days, when the bandages were removed, 
he was allowed to sit up, and then to walk about. 
Very soon he was running all over the premises 
using no stick, laughing and talking with every 
one, and showing the most decided change in dis- 
position as the result of eyesight regained. In 
less than a month after he entered the hospital, 
his mother took him home, after having expressed 
her d^ep gratitude for what we had been able 
to do for him. 

An old man came to me in the Chengtu A grateful 
hospital, who had cataract in both eyes. He °^^ ™^°- 
came into the wards and readily submitted to 
operation. When the bandages were removed, 
he was noticed counting his fingers. Then 
another day he could point out each window 
in the building, and a little later he could dis- 
tinguish the outline of each of the other beds in 
the ward. Finally one morning, as I entered 
the room), I stepped up to his bed and enquired 
how he was. He answered me very cheerfully 
that he could now see very well indeed. " Stand 
back, Doctor," he said, "back a little further, — 
there, I can see you distinctly there," as I reached 
a point about ten feet away. He took his 
departure, first overwhelming us with thanks 
for the benefits he had received. He, as well 
as the boy above mentioned, was poor, so could 
pay no fee ; both paid the cost of their food while 

207 



Heal the Sick 

in the hospital. We heard of the old man after- 
wards, that he spent much time on our own 
street, sitting in the teashops, talking with all 
comers, and telling how he had visited the 
foreigner's hospital, that he went in blind and 
came out seeing. His influence was ^11 on our 
side, and the whole incident did good to our 
medical work. That means that all departments 
of our work received benefit, for we all stand 
for the same thing, the holding up of Jesus Christ 
and Him crucified. It does not matter whether 
it is the church, the hospital, the school, or the 
press, the supreme aim of each and every depart- 
ment of work is the winning of men to the Lord 
Jesus, and their upbuilding in the faith. 
Old Mrs. Du. The last case of this sort to which I wish to 
refer is that of old Mrs. Du, a well-known old 
Christian and member of our Chengtu church. 
She was over seventy years of age, but bright 
and clear in intellect and in Christian experience. 
She it was who, when the movement against 
foot-binding began, insisted upon unbinding her 
feet. We almost urged her not to do so, because 
of her age, and because they could not expand to 
any great extent after the bandages were removed. 
But she said she would unbind for the sake of 
example, and unbind she did. 

Her sight began to fail, and she applied to one 
and then another of the Mission doctors for relief. 
Nothing could be promised her until her cataracts 
were ripe. In the meantime she grew steadily 

208 




MRS. DU AND A LITTLE GIRL FRIEND. 
" Whereas I was blind, now I see." 



Some Patients I Have Had 

worse, until at last, after a year or more, she could 
no longer venture out to church unless her grand- 
son led her by the hand. She was always in 
great distress over her loss of sight. Jesus 
cured a great many of blindness, why couldn't 
we? She had prayed to Him many times to 
restore her sight, w'hy did He not answer her 
prayer? Every time we saw her in church or 
elsewhere, the first query was always, " Oh, 
doctor, can't you do some'thing for my eyes ? " 
She had a simple, strong faith, and she often 
added, " I shall see clearly when I reach heaven 
any way." To add to her sadness her son and 
daughter-in-law commenced using opium, and, as 
the habit grew upon them, gradually wasted her 
property. She became anxious and prayed much 
for her son and his wife. From comfortable cir- 
cumstances, she was reduced to poverty, and 
could not be otherwise than somewhat anxious 
about her own future. At last the time came 
when it was thought that her eyes could be 
operated on with safety. Dr. O'Donnell took 
her in at the W. M. S. Hospital, and Dr. Retta 
Kilborn and I were called in to help perform 
the operation. Mrs. Du was much in prayer, 
and was grateful for what we were trying to do 
for her. Her eyes were slow in healing, but by 
the time she was ready to leave the hospital 
her sight was good, and she was happy accord- 
ingly. Dr. O'Donnell sent to Shanghai for a pair 
of spectacles for her. It was about two months 

14 209 



Heal the Sick 

before they reached Chengtu, but when they 
came, and were fitted, and the old lady was able 
to see still better, in fact almost as well as ever 
she did, how happy and thankful she was. She 
gave constant expression to her gratitude, both 
to us who had been the means used to restore her 
sight, and to God who had provided such means. 
She declared to Miss Brooks that she was going 
to devote her remaining years to preaching the 
Gospel. " My hair is gray," she said, " and 
people will listen to me, and believe what I have 
to say." She began at once, going into people's 
houses, and telling the Gospel story — emphasized 
always by the story of her own blindness followed 
by sight restored. What a change came over 
Mrs. Du's face and disposition. She was no 
longer downcast and melancholy, going out led 
by the hand, feeling her way carefully with a 
staff, but bright and cheerful, smiling and happy, 
her inward joy reflected in her countenance. 

Mr. Moody once said that one of the keenest 
joys to be had in this world is to have some one 
take us by the hand and say, " By your means 
I was led from darkness to light." I believe the 
joy that comes next to this is that of bringing 
light to the physically blind. Both these joys are 
the privilege of the medical missionary. 



210 



MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA.- 
MISSION MEDICAL SCHOOLS. 



" It is also freely acknowledged that in the United 
States there are already three times as many phy- 
sicians and twice as many medical schools as there 
is need for. Grist after grist of doctors — more than 
5,000 a year — are turned loose on this country, where 
the majority stay, either to eke out an existence or 
practise because the vocation is pecuniarily more 
profitable or socially more congenial than other 
callings. 

"And is it not also true that in some of our mag- 
nificent hospitals the wounds of the relatively few 
are not only scientifically treated, but in addition 
elegantly dressed, * to secure primary healing,' while 
the unwashed, untouched sores of the untold multi- 
tude in heathen lands are left to suppurate, to mor- 
tify and to kill? New York City alone has ten 
thousand hospital beds, costing upward of a million 
dollars a year — more beds and more money for the 
sick among two millions than are used and spent 
for the relief of the sick by all the medical missions 
that exist among a thousand millions of heathen 
and Mohammedans." — W. J. Wanless, M.D. 



CHAPTER X. 

medical education in china.— mission 
medical schools.* 

Medical Education in China. 

The Chinese Government in its published (government 
scheme for the organization of schools and col- J^^dkal col- 
leges for the whole empire, distinctly includes leges in its 
medical colleges. The "scheme" has been in ^^^^^'^^^^^''^^ 
print for three or four years, but the first Govern- 
ment medical college has yet to be organized, 
unless we except the one weak, struggling, medical 
school at Tientsin. "It was established about 
twenty years ago, and was at first in the hands 
of one or two medical missionaries for organiza- 
tion, but was later taken over by the Chinese 
with some foreign assistance. It has graduated 
quite a number of students, some of whom have 
proved useful men, but their education is super- 
ficial and otherwise insufficient." 

The Government is scarcely to be blamed for Medical 
not having made more progres along these edu-^^^°°^^ 
cational lines. They have not had time during organized 
the less than five years which have elapsed since ^^ Govern- 

*I am very largely indebted for the material of this chapter to the 
September, 1909, issue of "The China Medical Journal." 

213 



Heal the Sick 



The College 
of Medicine 
at Hong- 
kong. 



A medical 
school at 
Shanghai 
founded 
by the 
Germans. 



the promulgation of the edict aboHshing the old 
system of competitive examinations and ordering 
the establishing of schools. In any case, com- 
paratively few Government students are yet 
ready for a course in medicine, and for the same 
reason — insufficient time. 

As long ago as 1887 a college of medicine was 
established in the British colony of Hongkong, 
under the auspices of the Hongkong Govern- 
ment. It has gone steadily on educating Chinese 
students in the principles and practice of Wesiern 
medicine. In 1905, a very suitable site, centrally 
located and convenient of access to the several 
hospitals and laboratories of the city, was donated 
by the Government, and in 1907 and 1908 
large sums of money were contributed by 
Mr. Mody, a Parsee gentleman, and Mr. Ng 
Li Hing, a Chinese gentleman, residents of 
the Colony, for the erection of buildings 
for the Hongkong University, of which the 
College of Medicine is to form a part. The in- 
stitution is primarily for Chinese, but students of 
other nationalities will not be refused admittance. 
Graduates in medicine are required to serve the 
Hongkong Government for all or any part of 
the three years immediately following graduation, 
at a small fixed salary. 

A hospital and a medical school have been 
founded in Shanghai by certain German prac- 
titioners, with more or less backing from the Ger- 
man Government. As it is proposed to teach 

214 



Mission Medical Schools 

entirely in the German language, most of the 
training thus far has of necessity been in language 
study. 

Mission Medical Schooi^s. 

There are thirteen medical schools under dis- 
tinctly Christian auspices already in operation in 
China, and three others are proposed: — 

IN OPEEATION. 



City. 


Province. 


School. 


Missio.v. 


Language 

Used, 


Year 

FuCNDRD. 


Peking 


Chili 


Union Medi- 












cal College. 


Union 


Chinese . . 


1903. 


Peking 


Chili 


Union Medi- 
cal College 












forWomen. 


Union 


Chinese . . 


1906. 


Tsinan 


Shantung. . . 


Union Medi- 












cal College. 


Union 


Chinese . . 


1904. 


Shanghai. . . 


Kiangsu .... 


School o f 
Medicine — 
St. John's 
University. 


Am. Episco- 












pal 


English . . 


1896. 


Soochow . . . 


Kiangsu 


Soochow 
Medical 












School 


M. E. South. 


English & 
Chinese . 


1883. 


Hangchow. . 


Chehkiang. . 




C. M. S 


Chinese . . 




Foochow . . . 


Fukien 




0. M. S. . . . 


Chinese . . 




Canton 


Kwangtung. 


Racket t 
Medical 
College for 












Women 


Am. Presby. 


Chinese . . 


1901. 


Canton 


Kwangtung. 


South China 
Medical 
College.... 


Canton Med. 












Miss'y Soc. 


Chinese . . 


1903. 


Tungkun... 


Kwangtung. 




Rhenish 


Chinese . 




Hankow 


Hupeh 


Union Medi- 












cal School.. 


Union 


Chinese . . 


1902. 


Wuchang... 


Hupeh 


Boone Medi- 










\ 


cal School.. 


Am. Episco- 










pal 


English. . . 


1907. 


Changsha. . . 


Hunan 




Yale 


Chinese . . 













215 



Heal the Sick 
PEOPOSED. 



Cut. 


Provinck. 


Mission. 


Languagk 
Used. 


Moukden 


Manchuria 


Scotch Presbyt'n . 
Union 


Chinese. 


Nanking 


Chinese. 




Szechwan 


Union 


Chinese. 









Where It will be noticed that the first ten colleges men- 

le^es^are^°^' ^^^"^^ ^" ^^^ ^^^* ^^ those in operation, are located 
located. in eight cities in six provinces. Of the eight 
cities, Peking and Canton eadh has two colleges, 
but in each case one of the two is a college for 
women only. This is a noteworthy fact^ that of 
the sixteen medical colleges in operation or pro- 
posed, two are for the education of Chinese 
women in medicine, and are already in operation. 
It will also be noticed tihat the six provinces in 
which are these ten medical colleges, are six 
coast provinces from Chili in the north to Kwang- 
tung in the south, in the order named. This is 
the natural result of tlie earlier occupation of the 
coast provinces of China by foreign missionaries, 
and therefore of the more advanced state of the 
work in these provinces. 

Of the remaining three medical colleges in 
operation two are in Hankow and Wuchang, two 
big cities located on the Yangtse directly opposite 
each other^ about 650 miles from its mouth. The 
third and last is in Changsha, the capital of 
Hunan, south-west of the two cities just named. 

216 



Mission Medical Schools 

Of thirteen colleges in operation, four are 
union institutions; that is, they are organized, 
managed and supported by two or more mission- 
ary societies; nine are supported and controlled 
each by one missionary society. Two use English 
as the medium of instruction, one both English 
and Chinese, and the other ten Chinese. 

There has been a division of opinion among The langu- 
missionaries engaged in educational work in*se^^^^ 
China, as to the wisdom of using English or medium of 
Chinese as the medium of instruction. The ad- instruction. 
vantage in using English or German is the open- 
ing of practically the world's literature to these 
students, and thus a wide range of text-books 
and dictionaries, as well as the current issues of 
medical papers and magazines, is at their com- 
mand. The great disadvantage is the " necessity 
of not only learning the foreign tongue, but 
learning it thoroughly, so exacting and difficult is 
the technical medicine of modern development." 

" By using the Chinese language as the medium 
of instruction, much time is saved in preparation 
of students for the course, medical students will 
very soon be unlimited in number, and with the 
steadily growing medical literature in Chinese, I 
believe the work will be quite as efficient. More- 
over, all foreign missionaries to China learn the 
Chinese language, whatever the department of 
work in which they are engaged ; and it is very 
much easier for one missionary to learn Chinese, 
living in China, than for scores of Chinese to learn 

217 



Heal the Sick 

a foreign language without leaving China. The 
use of a foreign language as a medium of instruc- 
tion in schools or colleges for Chinese students in 
China can, in the nature of the case, be but a tem- 
porary expedient at the best ; their own language 
must be the ultimate and permanent language of 
instruction. In this connection it is interesting to 
note that the Union Medical College for Women, 
Peking, while using Chinese as the medium of 
instruction, teaches English to its students each 
year throughout the whole six years of their 
course, ' with the idea of preparing the students 
to read medical literature in that language by the 
time they have concluded their studies.' " 
The length The time required to complete the course in 

®* f. , these thirteen schools varies from four to six 

medical , . . - 

course. years, and the aim m each case is to cover as 

thoroughly as possible the ground covered in the 
best medical schools in Western countries. The 
staffs are invariably composed of foreigners and 
Chinese ; they vary from three to fourteen foreign 
doctors, with an indefinite number of Chinese. 
In most cases the foreigners are all medical mis- 
sionaries, but in some instances foreign doctors, 
other than missionaries, who are engaged in 
private practice, are giving of their services. All 
medical missionaries engaged in teaching, at the 
same time do more or less medical work in the 
mission hospitals. 
Granting of Three schools, carried on by United States 

medical missions, are incorporated under State laws, and 
degrees. 

2l8 



g^^^^^j^H 


"^ 


F 




ilUlT- - 


i» 


.■*■* 


.■■.^v..C'-i- 


PP'- 




« ■- <« 


«v .■ -/-•■:--^ 


^ -1 J5 ^» 
















^' 


K^3 


€^S 


1 



A NOTABLE GATHERING OF EDUCATIONISTS. 

Drs. Burton and Chamberlain, of the University of Chicago, 
together with several Chengtu missionaries, entertained 
by the Treasurer and the Commissioner of Education of 
the Province of Szechwan. 



Mission Medical Schools 

are in a position to give the degree of M.D. at 
their discretion. The Union School at Peking 
has Government recognition to the extent of giv- 
ing degrees under Chinese consent. " But all 
these schools realize that a tremendous responsi- 
bility is theirs, and that there is a great difference 
between training men for hospital service under 
foreign direction, and giving men license to 
practise scientific medicine at large. But whether 
degrees are given or not, none are required for 
practice, nor is any such question raised when 
the Chinese physician hangs out his shingle. If 
a nurse is discharged, likely as not he will set up 
as a physician, or even a coolie may do so. So 
that whether we give degrees or not will not effect 
the question of any native assistants leaving 
hospitals and taking up private practice. It is 
a question of responsibility, not of con- 
trollability." 

So far as I have been able to ascertain the 
facts, all but two of these schools have been estab- 
lislhed since 1900. Why should they have been 
delayed so long? What was the state of affairs 
previously ? 

The first missionary to China was the Rev. The recent 

Robert Morrison, who landed at Canton in 1807, ^J^J^^^f 

and the first medical missionary was Dr. Peter mission 

Parker, who arrived in 18^4. But almost three- }y°5^ ^ 

... . China, 

fourths of the four thousand missionaries now in 

China have gone to that land since 1890. 

Naturally the greatest development in missionary 

219 



Healfthe Sick 



One-man 
medical 
school a 
failure. 



A demand 
created for 
medical 
training. 



work in general and in medical missionary work 
in particular, has taken place during the last 
twenty years ; and the most of this, again, within 
the last ten years. 

From the very beginning, the need was felt for 
trained Chinese assistants in the mission hospitals, 
and for qualified Chinese physicians. There were 
no medical schools, and, I believe, I did only what 
almost every other medical missionary tried to do, 
in undertaking to train my own assistants. I did 
just enough to realize the hopelessness of the 
" one-man medical school " as an adjunct to a 
large, busy hospital. Until he can secure com- 
petent, trustworthy assistants, the medical mis- 
sionary must be not only physician and surgeon 
to his own institution, but also evangelist, 
steward, head-nurse, and superintendent and 
supervisor of floor-washing, laundry, kitchen and 
food supplies, chief pharmacist and dispenser, 
etc., so that when he undertakes in addition to 
teach a class of medical students, he is convinced 
after a few years that he has undertaken more 
than one human being can compass. I was as 
sanguine as anyone at first, but had to give up, as 
a great many others have done. 

" This pioneer work in medical education has 
been accomplished almost entirely through the 
labours of an increasing and widely spreading 
body of missionary physicians who have opened 
up extensive medical work in every province in 
the empire. They number at the present time 



220 



Mission Medical Schools 

something over eight hundred, with perhaps forty 
trained nurses, and are in charge of probably 
three hundred and fifty hospitals and dispensaries, 
seeing in the neigbborhood of two million 
patients a year in and about their hospitals and 
on extended itinerations in outlying country dis- 
tricts. And this progressively over some fifty 
years, 

" When one realizes the potentiality of this 
force, and that a large band of more or less 
trained native assistants has developed as 
an auxiliary thereto — native doctors, medi- 
cal students, nurses, orderlies, dressers, and 
so forth^ — one can readily see how it is that even 
this great mass of people has been fairly well 
leavened, and that an active sentiment is already 
making itself felt, demanding the education of 
native physicians for the practice of the science 
of medicine in the land."* 

It is true that a few men have managed to 
carry this work along year after year, until with 
the aid of some of their own graduates, the burden 
was lightened a little, and -a number of students 
have been graduated. But as a general rule, 
co-operation was substituted wherever possible 
and as soon as possible, and medical schools came 
into being. 

" Certain of their graduates, showing special 
zeal or fitness, have found their way to foreign 
lands and brought back foreign degrees as the 

* Dr. Jeffreys, China Medical Journal, Sept., 1909. 
221 



Heal the Sick 

reward of their labors, and settled down in private 
practice, or taken government employment, or 
given their services to the Mission Boards to 
which they owe their education. The number of 
these is still small, probably under twenty-five, 
even at the present timte (1909), though increas- 
ing rapidly year by year/' 
Why There are two chief reasons for the delay in 

medka^ ^^e establishment of Mission Medical schools 
schools were until within recent years. The first was the per- 
delayed. gistent notion that the solitary medical mission- 
ary working alone in a station, was competent to 
give his assistants all the teaching and training 
they required ; and the second was the very small 
number of medical missionaries in the whole of 
China, until within the last ten or fifteen years. 
Only when we began to have several medical 
missionaries of the one or of the several societies 
stationed in one large centre, was it possible to 
combine and co-operate in medical teaching, and 
so to establish medical schools. 

I believe there is another reason, which, 
perhaps, is quite as potent as either of the two 
just cited. It is only within very recent years 
that the wider view of medical work has been 
taken and held by the Mission Boards, or even by 
the missionaries on the field; namely, that the 
medical mission is not merely a pioneer agency, 
but an integral part of the Christian propaganda ; 
that the medical mission is not, therefore, a tem- 
porary form of work, to be withdrawn when its 

222 



Mission Medical Schools 

peculiar work is done, but is a permanent depart- 
ment of every well-equipped Mission in China, 
which is likely to finish its work only when that 
of other departments is finished also. 

If this view of the medical mission is the An appeal 
right one, then it is the duty of the medical ^^[j^^^g^^*^*^ 
missionary to multiply himself by making medical 
missionaries among the Chinese just as it is 
the duty of the ministerial missionary to make 
ministers. As the latter process requires the 
theological school, so the former must have the 
medical school. Not that the theological school 
is ever going to displace personal teaching and 
leadership on the part of the foreign missionary, 
for an essential part of the training of the can- 
didate for the ministry is that given by the mis- 
sionary as they tour the country together, preach- 
ing in the out-stations, selling scriptures and 
tracts together, sharing in the joys and sorrows, 
the failures and the triumphs of the active war- 
fare of the Cross. Few nowadays would con- 
tend that the latter form of training is sufficient 
preparation for the office and work of the Chris- 
tian minister in the growing Chinese Christian 
church. In other words, the one-man theological 
school as an adjunct to the work of the evange- 
listic missionary in church and out-stations, is 
voted insufficient, and fully manned institutions 
are called for and provided. So is the one- 
man medical school insufficient, and fully manned 
and equipped medical schools are called for, and 

223 



Heal the Sick 



The aim 

of the 
Mission 
Medical 
College. 



How the 
problem of 
adequate 
medical 
service will 
be solved. 



are being provided. " There is a general realiza- 
tion that the day of small things is over, and that 
larger and more thorough-going and more 
advanced work must be undertaken. There is a 
general disposition to close up the business of 
the education of students in isolated hospitals, 
and to send them instead to central schools where 
they may have the benefit of concentrated, co- 
operative teaching" ; and it is hoped that " require- 
ments and standards will be raised all along the 
line." 

The aim of the Mission Medical College may 
be summed up in one sentence — the furthering 
of the interests of Christian missions. Christian 
students are always preferred in the Mission 
Medical College, though non-Christians are 
usually admitted. Such a strongly evangelistic 
atmosphere is maintained in the whole conduct 
of the institution that many who enter as non- 
Christian are converted during their course. The 
primary aim is to prepare Chinese young men as 
medical missionaries among their own people. 
To this end nothing short of a first-class course 
of didactic and clinical instruction is given, 
extending over four, five, or six years, and usually 
with abundant opportunity for practical experi- 
ence in the adjacent Mission hospital. When 
they have finished, they may become : 

I. Hospital assistants, helping the Mission 
which has given them their education. They may 
continue doing this for two or three years, at a 
fixed small salary, or they may choose to con- 

224 



Mission Medical Schools 

tinue indefinitely in the Mission hospital, even 
at a nominal remuneration, for the sake of the 
opportunity thus afforded for successful Chris- 
tian work. Young Chinese medical men who 
have taken the full course, and who are qualified 
to practise medicine and surgery, and who are 
at the same time earnest Christian workers, will 
furnish the solution of the great problem of 
supplying the Chinese with an adequate number 
of medical missionaries within a reasonable time. 
More and larger hospitals will be built by the 
missionary societies, aided by benevolent men of 
wealth among the Chinese. These hospitals will 
be manned by foreign and Chinese medical mis- 
sionaries working together, and much more work 
will be undertaken and accomplished with the 
comparatively slight additional expenditure neces- 
sary for the employment of these qualified Chinese 
hospital assistants. 

2. Independent practitioners of medicine among serving the 
their own people. In this capacity they will be »ia<^^on. 
able to relieve an enormous amount of suffering 
every year of their lives ; they can and will wield 
a very powerful influence, both for the Gospel 
message and for the general uplift of the people ; 
they will be centres of light and of information, 
tending to better sanitation and improved hygiene, 
and in general to higher standards of living 
among all classes ; they will be well able to earn 
a good living, or even to amass a competency, 
according to Chinese standards. 

15 225 



Heal the Sick 

Medical -^. Government employees; that is, they may 

graduates as , . . , 

teachers in L>e given positions as surgeons in the army or 

Government navy, or in large Government institutions. The 
institutions which will need them most are the 
Government Medical Colleges, which are included 
in the published scheme for organization of 
schools and colleges for the empire. There has 
not yet been time to organize and open the first 
Government medical school. The Government is 
as yet too busy — and necessarily so — organizing 
the primary and secondary school systems, to fhink 
of opening professional schools. And, moreover, 
the only possible teachers now obtainable for 
such medical schools are foreign teachers, for 
the simple reason that there are as yet practically 
no qualified Chinese medical men. But the time 
will come in the not distant future when the 
Chinese Government will determine upon the 
active opening of medical schools throughout the 
empire, and to do this they must have qualified 
teachers. Here is a magnificent opportunity for 
Christian Missions, working through Mission 
medical schools, to prepare a supply of Chinese 
Christian physicians to take positions as lecturers 
and professors in Government medical schools, 
^j*® .st^t^s There is a prejudice on the part of the Chinese 
schools. ofiicials against Christian schools, arising largely 
from jealousy of foreigners and foreign influence 
in their country rather than from ill-feeling 
against us because we are Christians and mis- 
sionaries. This prejudice has been manifested 
in various ways; some two or three years ago 

226 



Mission Medical Schools 

an order went forth tliat no Christian schools 
should be registered by the Government Educa- 
tion Bureau. Later another order, which is still 
in force, declared that no graduate of a Christian 
school should be allowed to exercise the franchise 
in the election of representatives to the newly 
constituted provincial legislatures. But beyond 
these orders, which have undeniably detracted 
from the prestige and influence of our schools, no 
active hostility has been shown, and no restraints 
whatever have been placed upon the conduct of 
schools of all grades by the missionaries of differ- 
ent denominations. It is our policy to proceed 
tactfully, always, in the development of all grades 
of Christian schools among the Chinese, aiming 
to co-operate wherever possible with Govern- 
ment schools, but striving everywhere and under 
all circumstances to avoid wounding the suscepti- 
bilities of the Chinese officials, whether of the 
educational or of any other department. 

In West China, I think, the general feeling The eauca- 
among missionaries is against pressing any claim ^f^^^^e^t ^^ 
for recognition or registration of Christian China 
schools by the Government. We prefer rather to ^^issions. 
proceed quietly with the steady, orderly develop- 
ment of our Christian school system, putting our 
very best endeavors into the efficient training 
of the boys and girls, and the young men and 
women entrusted to our care. We have faith 
to believe that when we have graduated from our 
schools young men of good moral character, who 
at the same time present evidence of scholar- 

227 



Heal the Sick 



Support of 

medical 

Mission 

schools 

urged. 



ship and of capacity for affairs, the Chinese 
authorities will pay more attention to these things 
than to the nationality of the teachers or the name 
of the schools from which they have been gradu- 
ated. In a word, these young Chinese physicians 
will at once find themselves in demand by their 
own Government, for appointment as professors 
in the Government medical colleges. What an 
influence they can wield in such positions ! What 
a great power for good! They will mould the 
thoughts and conduct of scores, of hundreds, yes, 
of thousands of other young men who will pass 
through their hands as students ; they will start 
rivers of blessing, which will flow out among 
the myriads of toiling, suffering, pain-stricken, 
disease-ridden people, carrying relief and healing 
everywhere they go. Their teaching will tend to 
a moral and spiritual as well as physical uplift 
of all classes, and will expel superstition and 
ignorance as the light drives out the darkness. 
With all my heart, then, I would plead for the 
continued and increased support of the Mission 
medical schools in China. I believe they are a 
legitimate form of work ; I believe they are one 
of the most effective arms of the Christian mis- 
sionary service, one which should be strengthened 
with more men, good buildings, and better equip- 
ment, in order that as God has most signally used 
the medical missionary in the past, so He may 
use him in the future to do a mighty work for 
the uplift of the Chinese people. 

228 



CANADIAN METHODIST MEDICAL 
WORK IN WEST CHINA. 

UNDER THE GENERAL BOARD.— UNDER THE 
WOMAN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 



" I think one might properly answer this question 
by saying that the essential element of a missionary 
call is an openness of mind to the last command of 
Christ and to the need of the world; and then one 
needs only to subject himself to the judgment of 
the proper authorities as to whether he is qualified 
to go." — R. E. Speer. 

" Our appeal is not addressed to young men who 
have a high estimate of their own ability, and who 
make light of the difficulties and responsibilities of 
the work. Such men, however richly endowed with 
gifts and graces, make but poor representatives of 
the Master anywhere, but especially so in the mis- 
sion field." — John Lowey F.R.CS.E. 



CHAPTER XI. 

CANADIAN METHODIST MEDICAL WORK IN;^ 

west china.— under the general 

board.— under the woman's 

missionary society. 

Under the GeneraIv Board. 

The pioneer party of missionaries sent 'by the Our 
Methodist Missionary Society, Canada, to China Pj^j^^^i mis- 
in 1891, was composed of four men and their sionaries. 
wives; two of the mien were ministers and two 
were doctors. This proportion of medical men ^ 
to ministers has not been quite kept tip as the 
years have gone by, but at any rate our Mission 
may be said to have emphasized medical work 
as a very important department. The thought 
was that the direct preaching of the Word should 
be always accompanied, if possible, by the prac- 
tical benevolence of the medical missionary. 

In Chengtu, our first station, medical work The begin- 
was begun by Dr. D. W. Stevenson and myself, ^gfig^l 
as soon as we had acquired sufficient of the work. 
language. Indeed, it was begun before we had 
sufficient of the language. I well remember the 
day, November 3rd, 1892, one year from the day 
we had landed in Shanghai, when we opened our 
Chengtu dispensary, in order to commemorate 

231 



Heal the^Sick 



that day. We had been less than six months in 
Chengtu, and, as it proved, we had been there 
too short a time. We had eighteen patients the 
very first day, and they kept coming in ^increasing 
numbers every dispensary day, three days a week, 
until we had fifty to sixty in a day. Cases ap- 
peared which could not be satisfactorily treated in 
the dispensary, and so we hastily fitted up two 
more small rooms in our big dwelling compound, 
and put men patients in one and women in the 
other. Before long we had four or five patients 
in each room. Several operations were performed, 
some of considerable severity, but we had good 
results, all tending constantly to increase the 
number of those coming to us. 

Now we had planned in the beginning to see 
patients three days a week, and to study the 
study in the language the other three days. This we accom- 
eary ays. pjjgj^g^ f^j. ^ week or two, but soon between 
incessant calls for attention on the part of the 
in-patients and out-patients, and the calls to 
go to see others in their homes, together with 
operations to be performed, dressing and band- 
aging to be done, etc., we found our time wholly 
taken up for six days in the week and all language 
study completely crowded out. I have always 
been glad that we took the course of closing our 
medical work so that we could have time for 
uninterrupted situdy of the language for six 
months or a year longer. Of necessity, our medi- 



Medical 
work and 
language 



232 





SOME HOSPITAL PATIENTS. 

A leper. Waiting their turn. 

Dr. David Stevenson and patient. 



Medical Work in West China 

cal work had been slow at that stage, for we 
were obliged to keep our Chinese teachers at our 
elbows all the time to help us understand our 
patients and to help our patients understand us. 
I was in the habit of giving addresses or preach- 
ing to the patients as they gathered in the wait- 
ing-room, but it was in a very halting fashion. I 
lacked much of attaining to that happy stage when 
I could be said to be " free " in the language. 
The other missionaries agreed with us that it 
was highly desirable, perhaps necessary, that we 
medical missionaries should learn the language 
thoroughly. There was no manner of doubt 
about the necessity for the medical man to possess 
the ability to preach freely in Chinese for the 
sake, above everything else, of being able to 
preach to his patients. I have already stated in 
a previous chapter that this accords with the 
expressed judgment of the great Centenary Con- 
ference meeting at Shanghai in 1907. 

We had been living and working in a rented The first 
Chinese compound. Early in 1893 a medium- ij^ut in 
sized compound was purchased on the street Chengtu, 
called Sz Shen T&z, adjacent to the East Parade^ ^^* 
Ground, and the Chinese houses on it were 
repaired and adapted for use as dwellings for 
three families. At the beginning of 1894 two 
more small compounds were added which were 
immediately adjacent, and then the building of 
the first foreign hospital in Chengtu was begun. 

233 



Heal the Sick 

Medical Dr. Retta Gifford, for the Woman's Missionary 

opened in Society, reached Shanghai in February, 1893, 

Kiating, and Dr. H. M. Hare, for the General Society, in 

KHborn and September of the same year. They did not arrive 

Dr. Retta in Chengtu till about the end of February, 1894. 

In May, 1894, Dr. Gifford and I were married, 

and were sent immediately to Kiating, a city 

albout no miles south of Chengtu, to open work 

for our Mission there. 

As soon as a compound was secured as a 
dtwelling, and a large room prepared for preach- 
ing, regular services were conducted each Sunday. 
An additional compound was soon after rented, 
and repairs slowly effected in preparation for 
medical work. We opened medical work and 
carried it on for about the first four months of 
1895, my wife attending to the women, and 
myself to the men. We had four dispensary days 
a week, two for men and two for women. We 
took in a considerable number of both men and 
women as in-patients, and performed a number 
of operations. Our dispensary patients numbered 
from fifty to eighty each dispensary day. 
The stations Among the changes made by the Council of 
missionaries ^^^ ^^^^ ^^95> was the removal of Dr. and Mrs. 
in 1895. Hart and Miss Hart, Mr. and Mrs. Endicott, 
and Dr. Hare, to Kiating, and myself and wife to 
Chengtu. The exchange took place at the end 
of May and was accomplished just before the 
outbreak of the riots of that year. 

234 



Medical Work* in West China 

The riots began in Chengtu on the afternoon Riots in 
of May 28th, 1895, and did not cease till a\\^^T^etu, 
mission property in the city, both Protestant and Property 
Roman Catholic, was completely destroyed, ^^troyed. 
I do not mean to enter here into a detailed 
account of these riots, their causes, course, and 
effects. In brief, they were caused by ignorant 
suspicion, on the part of the populace, of the 
character and motives of the foreign mission- 
aries, aided by the culpable indifference or even 
the active incitement of the high officials. Many 
believed the missionaries to be of the lowest, 
vilest sort, who had probably been obliged to 
flee from their own country, and had come to 
China in order to defeat the ends of justice. 
It availed little to tell them repeatedly in our 
sermons and in our tracts that we were there for 
their good; this to them was a very transparent 
subterfuge. One must acknowledge that at that 
date even the highest provincial officials were 
often more ignorant of foreign missionaries and 
the countries and peoples they represented than 
the average Chinese schoolboy is now. So when 
evil rumors began to circulate among the people 
of Chengtu as to the criminal practices of the 
foreigners, and appeal was made repeatedly by 
members of our Mission to the District Magis- 
trate to issue a proclamation forbidding such 
scurrilous talk and quieting the people, a deaf 
ear was turned to us. There was evidence after- 
wards that he was simply acting on the orders 

235 



Heal the Sick 



EvU 
rumors 
about our 
medical 
work. 



of his superiors. Our appeals were ignored, the 
evil rumors increased in volume and virulence, 
and naturally the excitement of the people rose 
steadily. At the opportune moment, an excuse 
was easily concocted for the beginning of the 
stone-throwing at the gate of our compound, 
which ended only with the complete destruction 
of all mission property in the city. 

The occasion of some of these evil rumors 
was connected with our medical work. One of 
our medical men in Chengtu was called to see 
a woman in a very critical condition. He had 
been called too late to save her life, but not too 
late for her husband and other relatives to attempt 
to take advantage of the situation for their own 
ends. The woman died, and blackmail was 
immediately demanded from the missionary ; this 
was promptly refused. The story was at once 
circulated that the foreigner had been the cause 
of the death of this patient, and her body was 
exposed for several days to the curious gaze of 
all and sundry. Was she not dead ? Had she not 
been treated by the foreign doctor? Surely it 
was evident that he had poisoned her — for some 
horrible purpose of his own, of course ! And 
so the vile story grew, until people were afraid 
to allow their children to go upon the streets 
for fear they would be caught and " boiled for 
their oil'' by the awful foreigner. From these 
things to riots, with lootings and burnings, was 
a short step. 

.236 



Medical Work in West China 

During the ten days of our detention in the The 

, . ,.,.„.. attempt to 

magistrates yamen immediately following the incriminate 

riots, the city was for a time in a state of frenzied *^.® medical 
•' ^^ , , . missionanes. 

excitement. Human bones were dug up in one 

of the pauper cemeteries, and were carried about 
the streets as evidences of the horrid practices of 
the foreigners; they were openly alleged to be 
the bones of our victims. A glass jar of stewed 
cherries, looted from some missionary's store- 
room, was exhibited in a similar way, accom- 
panied by the loud-voiced announcement that 
these were babies' eyes which we had extracted 
for medicine. But the most startling of all was 
a deliberate plot or trap laid to catch us in our 
alleged crimes. A boy was reported to have been 
found in a tin box under the floor of our rioted 
chapel. He was said to have been stupid when 
found, from some drug which we had given 
him. Presently he recovered consciousness 
sufficiently to understand what was said to him, 
but was found to be dumb. Still, he was able 
to write a few characters in a scrawly hand, by 
which he made his dreadful condition known, 
and revealed the identity of the authors of his 
misfortune. Dr. Stevenson and I were con- 
fronted with the boy, in the presence of the pre- 
fect and the magistrate in the latter's yamen, and 
were questioned as to his condition. The boy 
had not been well coached and played his part 
badly. For our part, we declined to discuss the 
case, because we felt sure that our words would 

237 



Heal the Sick 

be twisted into some kind of self-condemnation, 
no matter what we said; furthermore, we alto- 
gether denied the magistrate's jurisdiction over 
us in the matter, and after considerable parleying, 
we were dismissed from our quasi trial to our 
rooms. The plot had failed. " The dumb boy 
in the tin box " doubtless soon recovered his 
power of speech, perhaps about the time the 
stern order arrived, by telegraph, from Peking to 
'' protect the foreigners and quiet the people." 
Dr. D. W. Notwithstanding the great destruction of 

sind^^U property, all within about twenty-four hours, pro- 
leave China, videntially not a single life was lost. All Chengtu 
missionaries, and some from other stations as 
well, were escorted to Chungking. Nearly all 
were obliged to travel to Shanghai in order to 
replace their lost property. It was a great loss 
to the Mission that Dr. and Mrs. Stevenson were 
compelled to return to Canada in 1895, not to 
return to China. Mrs. Stevenson passed through 
« some very trying experiences during the riots, 

which resulted in a nervous breakdown, from the 
effects of which she was years in recovering. 
Reoccupation We reached Chengtu again early in 1896, and 
1896 to 1900. began at once to rebuild houses and church, and 
in the early autumn the hospital. I was aible to 
open medical work once more in the General 
Hospital. In November, 1896, Dr. Retta Kil- 
born opened medical work for the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society in rented buildings which she had 
repaired and adapted. In March, 1897, Dr. Hare 

238 





CANADIAN METHODIST HOSPITALS, WEST CHINA. 

The new Hospital, Chengtu. 

A glimpse of the Hospital at Chungking. 



Medical Work in West China 

and Mr. Endicott had returned to Kiating, and 
the former was soon engaged in the erection of 
fine new brick buildings for a hospital. In the 
winter of 1896-7, the Mission was reinforced by 
Rev. W. E. Smith, M.D., and in the following 
winter by Rev. R. B. Ewan, M.D. When, in 
July, 1898, I left Chengtu for furlough, Dr. 
Smith was appointed in charge of the Chengtu 
hospital. July, 1899, Dr. Smith was appointed to 
itinerate among the outstations of the Chengtu 
Plain, and Dr. Ewan was appointed to the hos- 
pital. One year later, July, 1900, all missionaries 
were ordered away from West China by the con- 
suls, because of the very serious Boxer disturb- 
ances in North China. My wife and children 
and myself, returning from furlough, had reached 
Chengtu only in April preceding. Again we 
journeyed to the coast, and along with many 
hundreds of other missionaries, awaited in Shang- 
hai the outcom«e of events in the north. 

Those were days of anxiety and suspense for The Boxer 
the thousand or two of missionaries gathered in ^f "1^ 
Shanghai ; but for the missionaries and the Chris- 
tian Chinese of the nor'thern provinces of China, 
and for those who were shut up for two long 
months in the city of Peking, they were times of 
tragedy, of tortures and murders of strong men 
and of helpless women and children, of lootings 
and burnings, and of the awful scenes and expe- 
riences accompanying war and bloodshed. One 
hundred and thirty-six m^en and women and fifty- 

239 



Heal the Sick 



How the 
missionaries 
in Shanghai 
spent their 
time dur- 
ing the 
Boxer 
troubles. 



Missions 
reopened 
in 1901 
after Boxer 
troubles. 



three children, a total of one hundred and eighty- 
nine of the Prcytestant foreign missionary force of 
three nationalities — British, Swedish and United 
States — were killed or died from injuries received 
during the Boxer uprising of 1899 and 1900. Of 
Roman Catholic priests, bishops and nuns there 
were ahout thirty-five killed. Probably twelve 
thousand Chinese Christians were killed, many of 
them having been first urged to abjure their faith, 
but, refusing, were brutally put to death. 

The months passed slowly enough for us who 
were exiled in Shanghai, although the time was 
not by any means wasted. Conferences were 
arranged for the deepening of the spiritual life, in 
which miissionaries of all denominations freely 
took part ; others for the reading of papers and 
discussion of methods of work. Particularly 
helpful was a series of weekly meetings of med- 
ical missionaries from all parts of China, at which 
papers were read and valuable discussions carried 
on. A conference of women missionaries was 
held, to gain a better knowledge of the social life 
of the women of China and to bring together sug- 
gested methods for reaching them. 

Most missionaries of both sexes took advantage 
of the freedom from responsibility to spend much 
time in study of the Chinese language. And so 
the winter passed by. 

Regular time for furlough had nearly or 
quite arrived for Messrs. Endicott and Hart- 
well, and for Dr. Hart and Dr. Hare; 
240 



Medical Work in West China 

these all therefore returned to Canada in 1900. 
Dr. Hart's increasing ill-health prevented him 
from returning to China. In February, 1904, he 
died at his Canadian home in Burlington, Ontario. 
In the spring of 1901, Drs. Smith, Ewan and I 
travelled westward up the Yangtse as far as 
Chungking. The British Consul at Chungking 
advised us, as a precautionary measure, not to go 
beyond that point till after the summer. We 
therefore eagerly availed ourselves of the summer 
months for language study. In May, I had paid 
a brief visit to Chengtu and Kiating from Chung- 
king in order to look into the condition of the 
Mission property in our two stations, and to 
endeavor to hearten our members and believers. 
Finally, in September, we all left Chungking, Dr. 
Smith to reopen the evangelistic work in Kiating, 
and to do as much of the medical work as he had 
strength to carry on; Dr. Ewan to reopen the 
medical work in Chengtu, and myself to reopen 
the church work in Chengtu. 

The Mission property in our two stations — "^^^ . 

. mission 

houses, churches and hospitals — ^had been well property 

cared for by the Chinese officials, in whose hands unmolested. 

we had left it during our enforced absence. 

Nothing had been lost or destroyed, except for a 

certain amount of petty thieving which had 

occurred in Kiating. No charge was made by 

the officials for this efficient oversight, nor did 

we pay them, anything. The only expense to 

which the Society had been put was for wages 

16 241 



Heal the Sick 



X902. 



for certain of our Christians whom we had hired, 

on our own account, to Hve in the compwDunds 

during the year of our a^bsence and to keep guard 

over the buildings and their contents, and, if the 

truth must be told, to some extent to watch over 

the men placed there by the officials. 

Drs. Service The next medical men to join our Mission 
and Adams . 

reach China, were Dr. Service and Dr. Adams, who landed m 

China in October, 1902. Dr. Adams reached Sze- 
chwan early in 1903, and was stationed at Kia- 
ting. He was a graduate in both medicine and 
dentistry, and was ordained to the ministry 
besides. In 1904 he was appointed to the Kia- 
ting church and outstations ; but during that year 
a severe attack of typhus fever preceded a long, 
trying illness which finally necessitated his return 
to Canada early in 1905. He has since returned 
to China under another Society. Dr. Service, for 
the sake of the health of his family, remained 
at Wuhu, a river port between Shanghai and 
Hankow, until the autumn of 1903, when he 
escorted the contingent of that year up the river. 
They reached the province in the early months 
of the following year, 1904. Dr. Service was 
appointed to reopen the medical work in the Kia- 
ting Hospital in the fall of that same year. It 
had been closed from the timie of Dr. Smith leav- 
ing for furlough in March, 1903. The work 
grew and developed under Dr. Servicers care in 
a very gratifying manner. There was a large 

242 



Dr. Service 
and the 
work at 
Kiating. 



Medical Work in West China 

dispensary attendance, and the hosipital ward's 
were well filled most of the time. Latterly many 
patients came to break off opium. On Dr. Ser- 
vice's departure for furlougli in March, 1909, 
Council was unable to appoint any one to con- 
tinue the work. There was no doctor available 
for the active work ; the best we could do was to 
appoint Dr. Crawford to live at Kiating for his 
second year of language study, with the expecta- 
tion that he would reopen medical work at that 
station in the beginning of 1910. Dr. Service 
leaves Canada for China after furlough in the 
autumn of 1910. 

Dr. J. R. Cox reached China for the first time Medical 
in November, 1903, and arrived in Chengtu in the opened in 
spring of 1904. He started immediately upon the Jenshow. 
study of the language. In 1905 he was appointed 
to Jenshow, where he began his medical work in 
the fall and continued it through the winter. But 
a trip to Ichang" in the spring and another in the 
fall of 1906 to escort a party of reinforcements 
up river during the winter of 1906-7, delayed the 
reopening of Jenshow medical work until early 
in 1907. Rooms were fitted up in the old Chinese 
comipound there, which had become the property 
of the Mission some years previously. At first 
only dispensary work could be carried on, but 
when the first foreign dwelling was finished and 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoffman had moved into it, the 
rooms they had occupied in the old compound 

243 



Heal the Sick 



A tribute 
to the 
good work 
done by Dr. 
Cox at 
J enshow. 



Dr. F. F. 
Allan at 
J enshow. 



were utilized as wards, and patients were taken 
in. 

Jenshow, under the efficient management of Dr. 
Cox, proved responsive to the work of the medical 
missionary. Patients attended in increasing num- 
bers, both as dispensary patients and as in- 
patients. Operations were performed, and much 
good was done. Many here also came in to break 
off the opium, and many opium-suicides were 
saved from death. This all goes to show what 
can be done in an old, dark, insanitary Chinese 
building, making all the more conspicuous by 
contrast the much better work done when a good 
foreign building is available. To all who came 
the Gospel was preached and Scripture portions 
or tracts were given; so the seed was sown in 
many hearts, dark with ignorance, idolatry and 
superstition, to take root, spring up and bear 
fruit, we trust, in after days. 

When Dr. Cox left Jenshow for furlough in 
November, 1908, his work was taken up imme- 
diately by Dr. Allan, with this exception, that 
since no other diwelling accommodation was pos- 
sible. Dr. Allan and family had to occupy the 
rooms which had been used as wards. His 
medical work was and is yet limited to that of 
the dispensary. Active preparations are being 
made for the erection of another dwelling at 
Jenshow into which Dr. Allan will move, and 
so release his present living-room's for use as 
wards once more. 



244 



Medical Work in West China 

Dr. Smith, returning from furlough, reached Dr. Smith 
China in December, 1904, and Szechwan early in new^^gtation 
1905. He was appointed to open the new sta- of Junghsien. 
tion of Junghsien and to carry on the church and ^ork 
chapel work, also a certain amount of medical opened, 
work in a small dispensary as time permitted. 
While Dr. Smith has not had a hospital or accom- 
modation of any sort for in-patients, he has not 
ceased to dispense medicines and to perform 
minor operations in his limited quarters ; and this 
only during the spare hours in the intervals of 
the exacting calls of his chief work — the caring 
for the church and outstations, the erection of 
two new brick dwellings, and the other neces- 
sary buildings of the compound. He has relieved 
much pain, and gained the good-will of many, 
yet he would be the first to deprecate the con- 
tinuance of the dispensary without hospital ward 
accommodation. Because such a large propor- 
tion of patients, presenting themselves for treat- 
ment, cannot receive proper attention in the dis- 
pensary, they must be taken into the wards. 
Moreover, the spiritual results from work done in 
the wards are necessarily superior to those result- 
ing from work done in the dispensary. As at 
Jenshow, so in Junghsien, our Mission is in 
urgent need of a good foreign building for the 
medical work. $6,000 for hospital and dispen- An appeal 
sary, or with site and equipment $10,000, will'®' . 
provide the plant needed for the work of one 
m-edical missionary, that is to say, a hospital 

245 



Heal the Sick 



co-operation 

on the 

mission 

field. 

Medical 

work in 

Chengtu. 



Our 

splendid 
new 

hospital at 
Chengtu. 



with twenty-five or thirty beds and a fair supply 
of furniture, bedding, hospital clothing, etc., etc. 
This year, 19 lo, Dr. Smith is set free to give 
himself wholly to 'his church and chapel work 
by the appointment of Dr. iCox to do medical 
work in Junghsien. 

In the early months of 1906, Dr. Ewan returned 
from furlough. The Council of that year ap- 
pointed him to the Chengtu hospital, and to begin 
the erection of the large new building. As the 
burden of the task of the erection of such a 
large building — four stories in height — ^rolled 
upon him. Dr. Ewan found it less and less pos- 
sible to attend to the many calls upon his Chinese 
patients, until for the last year or two he has 
been compelled to greatly limit or altogether close 
his medical work for Chinese. Hence for this 
year, 19 10, when it was found that, through 
shortage of men, the Methodist Episcopal Mis- 
sion had decided to close their Chengtu hospital 
for one year, an agreement for co-operation 
between the Canadian Methodist and the Meth- 
odist Episcopal societies was reached, and Dr. 
Sheridan of our Mission has been appointed to 
carry on work for the year in the Methodist 
Episcopal hospital, leaving Dr. Ewan quite free 
to finish the building operations. 

With the completion of the new building, we 
shall have one of the very finest hospitals in all 
China. It is of brick, four stories in height, with 
general and special wards, and private wards 

246 



Medical Work in West China 

for the better classes of Chinese, who will be 
expected to pay accordingly for such accom- 
modation. There are the usual rooms connected 
with the dispensary, waiting-room, consulting- 
room, drug room, etc., besides dressing, oper- 
ating, anaesthetizing and sterilizing rooms, etc. 
The hospital equipment will be very complete ; 
there will be one hundred and thirty beds 
without crowding, or as many as one hundred 
and fifty with crowding. Two doctors, besides 
a missionary pharmacist and a missionary nurse, 
will probably be required to manage the work 
of this hospital. The new hospital will have a 
fine large hospital chapel, in which daily services 
will be held for the patients. The volume of 
Christian influence which will radiate from this 
great central institution cannot be estimated in 
figures. Not only will it minister directly to 
many thousands of sick and suffering Chinese 
every year, but indirectly, by furnishing the 
clinical material for our profK>sed medical depart- 
ment of the Union University, it will help in the 
education of Christian Chinese physicians who 
will in turn succor their own people. 

Leaving out of account the return of medical Dr. Allan 
missionaries from furlough, there was an interval chma^ie- 
of three years after the arrival of the previou.<: cember, 
medical man. Dr. Cox, before the next was sent ^^°^* 
to us. This was Dr. F. F. Allan, who landed at 
Shanghai in December, 1906. I have already 

247 



Heal the Sick 



Drs. Craw- 
ford and 
Sheridan 
arrived in 
iqoj. 



In 1908 
Drs. Barter 
and Fergu- 
son came. 
Their 
present 
stations. 



referred a!bove to his having been stationed at 
Jenshow, where he is now (1910). 

In November, 1907, we were reinforced by 
two medical men, Drs. Crawford and Sheridan. 
The former was appointed to Hve in Penghsien 
and the latter in Tzeliutsing for the study of the 
language. In March, 1909, Dr. Crawford was 
moved to Kiating for his second year language 
study, as already mentioned, and this year, 19 10, 
he is appointed to carry on medical work there 
" on rise of Council," i.e., beginning in the month 
of February. Dr. Sheridan spent his two years 
of language study at Tzeliutsing, and has been 
moved by Council of this year, 1910, to Chengtu, 
where he is appointed to carry on medical work 
for a year in the Methodist Episcopal hospital, 
which would otherwise have been closed for the 
year. Dr. Ewan's time is this year given entirely 
to the work of finishing building operations on 
the new hospital in iChengtu, and on the new 
hospital house. 

The reinforcing party of 1908 also brought 
two medical men, Drs. Barter and Ferguson. 
The former lived for the first part of 1909 in 
Chengtu, and for the latter half of the year in 
Pen^sien, where he is again stationed this year. 
He is now, therefore, in his second year of lan- 
guage study, and will be ready for full work in 
February, 191 1. Dr. Ferguson was appointed to 
Luchow, where he is now putting in his second 
year of language study, and where he will prob- 

248 




MEDICAL MISSIONARIES UNDER THE GENERAL 
BOARD. 



I. Dr. R. B. Ewan. 
4. Dr. A. J. Barter. 
7. Dr. W. D. Ferguson. 
10. Dr. F. F. Allan. 



2. Dr. E. C. Wilford. 
5. Dr. D. F. McKinley. 
8. Dr. J. R. Cox. 
II. Dr. W. J. Sheridan. 



3. Dr. C. W. Service. 
6. Dr. O. Iv. Kilborn. 
9. Dr. Wallace Crawford. 
12. Dr. W. E. Smith. 



Photo of Dr. Wolfendale not obtainable. 



Medical Work in West China 

ably be appointed to open medical work in Feb- 
ruary, 191 1. 

The 1909 party had only one new doctor, Dr. Dr. Wilford 
Wilford. He is appointed to study the language mediwlinan 
at Tzeliutsing. With the 1909 party, Dr. Cox ot the igog 
returned to China from furlough. Council has P^^*y* 
appointed him to Junghsien, where he will give 
himself wholly to medical work and set Dr. 
Smith entirely free for his church and chapel 
work. The party for 1910 will have Dr. Mc- 
Kinley. 

In addition to the medical men we have sev- Nurses first 

eral nurses. Miss Switzer and Miss Plewman ^J'^.^^^^ 

China m 
reached China in October, 1908. On the way autumn 

up the Yangtse, Miss Plewman was taken so of 1908. 
seriously ill that her immediate return to Canada 
was necessary. 'Miss Switzer studied Chinese 
in the Language School for missionaries at 
Chengtu during 1909, and this year continues her 
studies at Jenshow. The 1909 party included 
two nurses. Misses Wood and McNau^ton, who 
are this year stationed at Chengtu in order to 
take advantage of the Language School. The 
191 o party is unfortunately without one trained 
nurse. 

During the early months of 19 10, an arrange- 
ment was consummated by which the whole 
work and territory of the London Missionary 
Society in the province of Szechwan was trans- 
ferred to the Missionary Society of the Metho- 
dist Church, Canada. This gives us at once 

249 



Heal the Sick 

one more central station, our share in the big 
city of Chungking, eleven outstations, a great 
many other cities and towns to be opened as 
outstations, and at least several more to be 
opened as soon as possible as central stations. 
(The '• central station " has foreign missionaries, 
the "outstation" has no resident foreign mis- 
sionaries, and may or may not have a resident 
Chinese evangelist. The work in the outstation 
is carried on primarily by the Chinese helper 
or evangeHst, superintended by the foreign mis- 
sionary, who itinerates from time to time through 
a number of these places). 
Our newly The large brick hospital, previously the pro- 
hospital at P^ty of the London Mission at Chungking, 
Chungking, now belongs to us ; and, moreover, we are privi- 
leged in having as members of our Mission the 
Rev. John Parker and Dr. Wolfendale, formerly 
of the London Mission. Dr. Wolfendale is this 
year appointed in charge of the Chungking 
^ hospital. He erected the building some ten or 

twelve years ago, and has had charge of it 
almost continuously since. There is room for 
about sixty beds, most of which are placed in 
three or four large general wards ; but there are 
also a number of private wards, for one or two 
patients each. 



250 



Medical Work in West China 

Under the; Woman's Missionary Socieity. 
This account of the medical work of the The first 

7116 die aI 

Canadian Methodist Mission- would be (quite j^igg^Qj^^—. 
incomplete if we were not to include some des-of the 
cription of that of the Woman's Missionary d^' Retta 
Society. The first medical missionary to he sent Gifford. 
out by the W. M. S. was Dr. Retta Gifford. 
She reached Shanghai in Feibruary, 1893, but 
failing escort up river was obliged, with her 
feilow-mis'sionary, Miss Brackbill, to remain 
there till autumn. She reached Chengtu in Feb- 
ruary, 1894. In May of that year, Dr. Gifford Dr. Retta 
and I were married. Contrary to the usual n^arries 
custom, her marriasre did not result in the sever- Dr. 0. L. 
ance of all connection between her and the 
Woman's Missionary Society, at least not 
immediately. She was retained as a missionary 
of the W. M. S. (without salary, of course), 
and studied the language in preparation for 
opening medical work for women. Immediately 
after our marriage we moved to Kiating to open 
that station for the General Society. May, 
1895, we returned to Chengtu, just in time to be 
rioted. In April, 1896, we arrived back in 
Chengtu from the coast, and, as I have already 
mentioned. Dr. Retta Kilborn succeeded in 
opening medical work for the W. M. S. in 
Chengtu in November, 1896, after having first 
repaired and adapted Chinese houses for use as 
dispensary and hospital. She carried on the 

25r 



Heal the Sick 



Dr. Maud 
Killam in 
charge of 
the W.M.S. 
work after 
Dr. Retta 
Kilbom's 
resignation. 



The 

furloughs 
of 1900 



Drs. Henry, 
Retta Kil- 
born and 
Maud 

Killam carry 
on the work. 



work for the first year, assisted by Miss Ford, 
a trained nurse, seeing and treating some thou- 
sands of patients in dispensary and wards, till 
February, 1898, when she sent in her resignation 
to the W. M. S. Board of Managers. Dr. Maud 
Killam had arrived in China early in 1897, and 
took over the responsibility for the W. M. S. 
medical work at the time my wife gave it up. 
Dr. Killam had continuous charge of the W. M. S. 
hospital in Chengtu until the summer of 1900, 
when she was compelled, with all the rest of us, 
to journey to the coast, on account of the Boxer 
disturbances in the noi'th. 

Along with the other W. M. S. workers. Dr. 
Killam went right on to Canada in 1900, taking 
a slightly early furlough. This early furlough 
was explained for all who took it by the near 
approach of the time for their regular furlough 
and by the certainty of at least a year's enforced 
absence from our field, and the uncertainty as 
to when we should really be allowed to return 
into the interior. 

In the meantime a new worker was already 
on the field ; Dr. Anna Henry left Canada in the 
autumn of 1899, and reached Chengtu in the 
early spring of 1900. 'She was also exiled to 
Shanghai in the summer of 1900, returning 
westward in the spring of 1901. She reached 
Chengtu in September, 1901, and immediately 
opened the W. M. S. hospital and dispensary. 
Dr. Henry had not yet had the usual time for the 



252 




MEDICAL WORK OF THE WOMAN'S MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY. 

Miss Wellwood and two Chinese nurses in training. 
'* We've had our feet unbound ; when they're better, we can run." 



Medical Work in West China 

Chinese language, so Dr. Retta Kilborn offered 
to help for a time. Her offer was accepted, and 
she and Dr. Henry carried on the work together 
for a year. In the spring of 1902, Dr. Killam 
returned from furlough, and from that time she 
and Dr. Henry worked together. The latter 
opened a dispensary in the east gate suburb of 
the city, thereby reaching a section of the popu- 
lation previously untouched. 

In 1904 Dr. Killam was married to Mr. Neave Dr. Kaiam's 
of the General Society, and therefore left the ^^^^^^naU^n 
ranks of the W. M. S. workers. Towards the age in 1904. 
close of the same year. Dr. Henry left for Canada 
on her first furlough. But provision had been 
made for the continuance of the medical work. 
Dr. Florence O'Donnell left Canada for China Dr. 
in the autumn of 1902, reaching Chengtu in the arrived \n 
spring of 1903. She was, therefore, ready to 1903. 
take up the medical work when Dr. Henry left 
for furlough in 1904. Dr. O'Donnell had con- 
tinuous charge of the W. M. S. hospital until 
she left for furlough in February, 1908, not to 
return to China. 

Because of illness. Dr. Henry's furlough was Dr. Henry in 
prolonged. She reached China in April, 1907, ^J*'^® 
but was permitted to spend the heat of thew.M.S. 
summer at Kuling, and did not, therefore, reach Jj^^^s*^ 
Chengtu until about the end of the year. She, 
therefore, took up the medical work as soon as 
Dr. O'Donnell left for furlough in the beginning 
of 1908, and is still in charge. 

253 



Heal the Sick 



Dr. Mabel 
Cassidy, 
Dr. May 
Austen and 
Dr. Rae. 



The found- 
ing of the 
Jennie Ford 
Orphanage. 



Dr. Mabel Cassidy was sent to China by the 
W. M. S. in the autumn of 1904, reaching the 
field in the spring of 1905. In November of that 
same year, she was married to Mr. Mortimore 
of the General Society, and, therefore, no longer 
reckoned as a W. M. S. worker. Dr. May 
Austen left Canada in the autumn of 1907, reach- 
ing West China in the spring of 1908. She is 
this year, 1910, appointed to help with the medi- 
cal work, and also to do a certain amount of 
teaching in the girls' school. The last medical 
woman to be sent out by the W. M. S. is Dr. 
Rae, who reached the field the beginning of 
1910, and is now engaged in language study. 

The Woman's Missionary Society has sent 
a number of nurses to West China, beginning 
with Miss Jennie Ford in 1895. Miss Ford 
arrived in Chengtu just in time for the riots 
of May of that year. Her experiences at that 
time were a severe shock to her, and undoubtedly 
contributed to the causation of the disease of 
which she died in April, 1897. It was Miss 
Ford's kindness of heart which led to the estab- 
lishment of the orphanage in Chengtu, called 
by her name. Just a few weeks before her 
fatal illness she took in from the street and 
adopted as her own, two abandoned waifs, one 
an infant of two months, the other a poor starved 
outcast of two years. These two formed the 
nucleus of the present large family of orphans 
who are comfortaibly housed and cared for in 

254 



Medical Work in West China 

a building specially built for the purpose in 
the W. M. S. compound. 

The next nurse was Miss Foster, who reached The opening 
Chengtu early in 1897. She was one of those v/^^S 
who took early furlough in 1900. Returning, J^ork at 
she arrived in Chengtu early in 1902, and did 
yeoman service, not alone as nurse assisting in 
the medical work, but as evangelistic worker 
in Kiating. She opened the work for the 
W. M. S. in Kiating, and carried on both evange- 
listic and school work there, until a serious 
illness caused her to be invalided home to Canada 
in the early months of 1907. 

Miss Fannie Forrest left Canada for China Reinforce- 
to wards the end of 1900. She reached Chungking 
in the spring of 1901, and Chengtu in the 
autumn. Her work was mostly nursing in the 
Chengtu hospital, until she left for furlough 
along with Miss Foster in February, 1907. Miss 
Forrest returned to China in 1908 to be married 
to Mr. Geo. Franck of the China Inland Mission. * 

Miss Wilkins went to China in 1905, and was 
married to Mr. Muir, of the China Inland Mis- 
sion, in 1908, withdrawing from our Mission. 

Miss Wellwood was one of the party of re- 
inforcements of 1906, reaching Chengtu early in 
1907. She is now working in the Chengtu hos- 
pital along with Dr. Henry. 

Miss Lawson reached West China at the 
beginning of 1909, and Misses Asson and 

255 



Heal the Sick 



The diffi- 
culties of 
our W.M.S. 
in West 
China. 



The W.M.S. 
hospital at 
Chengtu. 



Marshall in the beginning of 1910. These are, 
therefore, as yet engaged in language study. 

The Woman's Missionary Society has opened 
work in only four stations, but is urged by the 
Council of the General Society to come along 
and help us by opening work in each one of 
our other stations as soon as possible. The only 
reason why they have not kept pace with the 
work of the General Society is the lack of 
workers ; the W. M. S. has the double difficulty, 
that of finding suitable candidates for the work 
in West China, and that of keeping them after 
they g"et them. 

They have not yet opened medical work in 
more than the one station, the city of Chengtu. 
Their medical work is for women and children 
only, and is carried on in Chinese buildings 
which are the property of the Society, and which 
have been altered and adapted for the purpose. 
There is a consulting room, a waiting room, 
which is also a chapel, a drug store room and 
a dispensing room, operating and instrument 
rooms. There are four or five wards, containing 
thirty beds. Upwards of one hundred patients 
are seen in the dispensary each week, and from 
these the wards are easily supplied. The women 
and children come freely, listen for the most 
part attentively to the Gospel message, and sub- 
mit to operative or other treatment without much 
difficulty. As in the case of the general hospital 

256 



Medical Work in West China 

work, the volume of work which is undertaken 
and accomplished is limited only by the physical 
endurance of the missionary physician in charge. 

Just now there is a project afoot for a new The pro- 
building, a " foreign " building for the W. M. S. ^.m^s.^'iim- 
medical work. The present buildings have pital in 
answered the purpose for fourteen years ; they ^^®°2 u. 
are not so convenient or sanitary, by any means, 
as a proper hospital building would be, and more- 
over are urgently required for the expansion of 
the Jennie Ford Orphanage, which long ago out- 
grew its original narrow quarters. For these 
and other reasons, it is proposed to erect a new 
brick structure which will accommodate more 
patients, in pleasanter and more sanitary wards; 
and it is intended also to include accommodation 
for a training school for Chinese nurses. I sin- 
cerely hope the Woman's Missionary Society will 
succeed in acquiring a suitable site, and in erect- 
ing a building or buildings adapted in every way 
for the purposes they have in view. 



17 257 



Heal the Sick 

A Summary o^ Our Me:dicaIv Work. 

A bird's eye view of the present status of our 
medical work may be gained by a glance at the 
accompanying table: 



station 


Building 


Beds 


Approx. No. 
of Patients 
each year 


Doctor now 
in charge 


Ohengtu . . . 
Kiating.... 


New brick building juBt 
approaching completion 
Brick building erected in 
1896-7 


130 
30 
10 
60 

30 


10,000 
6,000 
2,000 

10,000 

6,000 


Drs. E\»an and 
Sheridan 
Dr. Crawford 


Jenghow . . 


Old Chinese buildings 


Dr. Allan 


Chungking . 
Junghsien . . 

Penghsien . . 


Large 2-8tory brick erect- 
ed about 12 years ago . . 
Probably renting Chin- 
ese for temporary use . . 

None 


Dr. Wolfendale 

Dr. Cox (just ap- 
pointed there- 
Council of 1910) 
Dr. Barter 


Luchow 


None 


(studying the 

language) 
Dr. Ferguson 

(studying the 

language) 
Dr Wilford 


Tzeliutsing . 


None 


Ohengtu, 
W.M.S. 


Chinese buildings adapt- 
ed 


(studying the 
language) 
Drs. Henry and 
Austen 



A few of the large cities within the territory 
assigned to the Canadian Methodist Mission, 
for which we are exclusively responsible, are the 
following : — T sing yuan, Weiyuan, Wenkiang, 
Pihsien, Tsungning, Sinfan, Changshow, Fengtu, 
Fuchow, Chungchow, Nanchwan, and there are 
others. These are all walled cities, with a popu- 
lation of from ten thousand to fifty or seventy 
thousand each, and with one to five or six hun- 
dred thousand of a population in the market 

258 



Medical Work in West China 

towns and villages round about each city. In 
each one of these we should have a hospital and 
a medical missionary, in addition to other foreign 
missionaries. The hospital would cost about 
$6,000, or, with site and equipment, about 
$10,000. 



Our Medicai. Missionaries. 

GENERAL SOCIETY. 

Name Present Station First Arrived in China 

F. F. Allan Jenshow December, 1906 

A. J. Barter Penghsien October, 1908 

J. R. Cox Junghsien November, 1903 

W. Crawford Kiating November, 1907 

R. B. EAran Chengtu December, 1897 

O. L. Kilborn Returning October, 1910, 

from furlough November, 1891 

R. G. Kilborn (nee GiflEord) Ditto February. 1893 

D. F. McKinley October, 1910 

M. Mortimore (nee Cassidy) . .Returning, October, 1910, 

from furlough December, 1904 

M. K. Neave (nee Killam) Chengtu February, 1897 

0. W. Service Returning October, 1910, 

from furlough October, 1902 

W. J. Sheridan Chengtu November, 1907 

W. E, Smith Junghsien September, 1896 

E. 0. Wilford Tzeliutsing November, 1909 

R. Wolfendale Chungking (entered CM. 

Mission 1910) 18a6(?) 

WOMAN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Name Present Station First Arrived in China 

M. Austen Chengtu 1907 

A. J. Henry Chengtu 1899 

O. M. Rae Junghsien 1909 

Total number of Medical Missionaries— Men 12 

Women 6 

18 

Medical Missionaries of the General Society 15 

" " of the Woman's Society 3 

18 

Number of Medical Missionaries in China, 1910 IS 

Number going this year, 1910, for first time 1 

Number returning this year from furlough 4 

18 



Heal the Sick 

The status I should explain that technically in our 

wom^^3L8 Society married women are not reckoned as 

missionaries, missionaries, although in China they are usually 

so counted. In many societies working in China, 

married women have a standing more or less 

equivalent to that of the men. 

Our medical From the two tables s^iven above, we may note 

equipment 

in West that our Church has five hospitals, with 260 beds, 

China. ^^d a capacity for treating about 32,000 patients 

each year. This figure includes " new patients " 

and " return visits," as well as visits in the homes, 

etc. Of the thirteen doctors just now in China, 

one is a married woman who is not doing active 

medical work; two are single women of the 

W. M. S., working in one institution; four are 

in the language study stage; and one, Dr. Cox, 

has just been appointed to Junghsien where there 

is yet no hospital or dispensary building. Only 

four men and two single women are able to 

be actively engaged in hospital and dispensary 

work for the Chinese, in five institutions in four 

cities. The other four cities in which we have 

other forms of work, as church and chapel, and 

usually school work, are urgently in need of 

medical work ; and they should be provided with 

good " foreign " buildings at the earliest possible 

date. At least eleven more cities, as listed in the 

first table, await opening by our Mission, for 

medical work and all other forms of Christian 

activity. But more about this in the next chapter. 

260 



OUR PRESENT NEEDS —AN APPEAL. 



OTHERS 

Lord, help me live from day to day, 
In such a self-forgetful way, 
That even when I kneel to pray, 
My prayer may be for others. 

May self be crucified and slain, 
And buried deep, and all in vain. 
Attempts be made to rise again. 
Except to live for others. 

Take all my selfishness from me, 
Ope' Thou mine eyes that I may see. 
That even what I do for Thee, 
Must needs be done for others. 

And when on earth my work is done, 
And my new work in Heaven's begun. 
May I forget the crown I've won, 
While thinking still of others. 

Others, Lord, yes, others; 
May this my motto be, 
'* Help me to live for others. 
That I may live for Thee." 

— C. D. Meiggs. 



ment neces- 



CHAPTER XII. 

OUR PRESENT NEEDS.— AN APPEAL. 

I have devoted the preceding chapter to some 
account of the medical mission work now carried 
on by the Methodist Church, Canada, in West 
China. I have now to indicate our present needs 
in this department. 

First of all, our greatest need is for men and An appeal 

women as workers. We want nothing less than ^^^ ^xh%- 

the best — men and women of character, of well- ough equip- 

balanced judgment, of whole-souled devotion to 

■'<=>' sary 

Jesus Christ and to the establishment of His 
Kingdom in China. They must be well prepared 
in their specialty, at least as well prepared as 
though they were about to set up in practice in 
Canada; better, if possible. And they must 
come to China determined to spend their lives 
there, God permitting, in His service and in the 
service of the Chinese. I am surprised that there 
are not more young men and women now in the 
High Schools and Collegiate Institutes of our 
country, who are looking forward to the four or 
five years' course in medicine, preparatory to 
coming to China as medical missionaries. Better 
still if they look to the combined course in arts 
and medicine, seven years, and then a year in 

263 



Heal the^Sick 

postgraduate work, all of which is not a whit 
too good for the great responsibility that will 
rest upon them in China. Surely there are more 
young men and women in our medical colleges 
than we have yet heard of, who are preparing 
definitely for medical missionary work in China. 
Our country is crowded with medical practi- 
tioners ; the United States is overcrowded ; Great 
Britain and Ireland are in a similar condition. 
There is no loud cry arising from any part of 
these countries for men to come to save the sick 
and dying, to relieve pain and misery, to give 
back life and health and happiness to myriads of 
suffering people. But China echoes and re- 
echoes with the never-ceasing wail, from men, 
caught in the grip of the opium habit and many 
other vices, and longing to be free ; from women, 
suffering inexpressible agonies from which the 
light of our modern science has relieved those of 
Christian lands ; from helpless children, sick and 
dying at a rate w*hich would appal us if we knew, 
and from complaints and diseases which are being 
overcome and banished from our more favored 
Will you lands. Come over and help us ! You young 
thisTall?° ^^^ "^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ desire to make your lives 
count for the very most for God and your fellow- 
men — 'CoMi:! You young women who reaHze 
that you have only this life to live, and who 
would serve God by serving your fellow-women 
— Come ! People will tell you that there is much 
opportunity for service in Canada, and so attempt 

264 



Our Present Needs. — An Appeal 

to dissuade you from coming to China. So there 
is a great opportunity in Canada, and many work- 
ers! By coming to our aid in China, do not 
imagine that you will deplete the number of 
workers in the home land ; do not fear that your 
coming will cause any work to be left undone at 
home ; rather will your coming be the means of 
stimulating many others to take up the work 
which you leave at home. And remember that if 
you do not come with us, there is no one else to 
do the work in China which you would have 
done. Our two Mission Boards are unable to 
find the requisite number of suitable candidates 
for China and Japan. This year, 19 lo, our Gen- 
eral Board was to have sent fifteen missionaries 
to China ; only nine have been found, including 
the two who have come to us from the London 
Mission. Our Woman's Mission Board also 
endeavored to find and send ten workers ; only 
six are available. The cry is for more workers 
for China : who will respond ? 

In the second place, we need hospitals. We An appeal 
have hospitals at present in four only of our p^^ig 
eight central stations. We ought to have the 
means provided at once for the purchase of sites, 
the erection of good buildings, and their equip- 
ment, in the other four central stations. Ten 
thousand dollars will do it in each place, except 
possibly in Tzeliutsing, the great salt well city. 
There the amount required must be double that 
needed elsewhere, because of the size and influ- 

265 



Heal the Sick 



Fifteen 
hospitals 
are required 
for central 
stations. 



An appeal 
for a 
medical 
college. 



ence of that centre. A much larger hospital is 
needed there, comparable with that now ap- 
proaching completion at Chengtu, the provincial 
capital. Ten thousand dollars will do as much 
for us in West China in providing site and build- 
ing as fifteen or twenty thousand in Canada. 
Labor is cheap, so are some of our building 
materials ; and land is much cheaper. 

I have already indicated in Chapter XL the 
eleven other cities for which our Church is exclu- 
sively responsible, and the claims of which are 
pressing upon us. These eleven cities must be 
opened as central stations within a very few 
years; medical men and women are needed to 
place in them, and a hospital will be required in 
each, as well as a church and a school. Here, 
then, is a minimum of fifteen hospitals required 
within a very few years. Can you to whom God 
has given the means think of an investment which 
will brmg in greater returns than the establish- 
ment of a hospital in one of these great cities of 
West China ? The returns are not in hard cash, 
it is true; but in that which hard cash cannot 
buy — relief to the suffering, hope to the dis- 
heartened, and best of all, to many, a joyous ex- 
perience of eternal life, the free gift of Jesus Christ 
their Saviour. We need your help and co-opera- 
tion in providing our hospitals. 

In the third place, we need a medical college. 
Chapter X. deals at some length with the sub- 
ject of medical education in China as a whole. 

266 



Our Present Needs. — An Appeal 

All lists of large centres in China, made to show 
those suitable or advisable for the establishment 
of medical colleges, invariably include the city 
of Chengtu. Now Chengtu is a city of four to 
five hundred thousand, the capital of the great 
province of Szechwan, and the acknowledged 
literary as well as political centre for 69,000,000 
people. Chengtu is the headquarters of our Mis- 
sion, and of several other Missions at work there. 
There is a large measure of co-operation existing 
in all lines of work among these different Mis- 
sions. But the closest and most cordial co-opera- 
tion is in educational work. A Christian Educa- 
tional Union has been formed, which co-ordinates 
all elementary and " Middle " or High Schools 
carried on by all the Missions. There is a corn- 
mon course of study, very carefully graded ; there 
are uniform examinations, with printed examina- 
tion papers circulated all over the province; the 
committee of examiners is made up of mission- 
aries from all the Missions, and living often huur- 
dreds of miles apart. Pass-cards and certificates 
of standing are awarded annually on the results 
of the examinations. 

The aim of the Christian Educational Union is The Union 
brought to focus in a Union Christian Univer- unfyersft 
sity, formed for the present by four different in Chengtu. 
Missions, and located at Chengtu. Ours is one 
of the four Missions entering into this union. 
Sixty-five acres of land have been purchased just 
outside the walls of Chengtu, to the south, and 

267 



Heal the Sick 



Why we 
must have 
a medical 
college. 



A magnifi- 
cent oppor- 
tunity for 
investment. 



this area is allotted in sections to the four Mis- 
sions. A central section is reserved for Union 
purposes later on. Each Mission undertakes to 
erect on its own allotted section a college build- 
ing, dormitories for its students, and dwellings 
for its teachers, foreign and Chinese. There is 
also a union Middle or High School in close 
association. 

University work in the two faculties of arts 
and theology is in operation; the former began 
in February, 1910, the latter two or three years 
previously. From the beginning, it has been the 
aim of the organizing Missions to include a med- 
ical college as a department of the university. 
Thus the way is made easy for the establishment 
of such a college at Chengtu. It will be a union 
college ; two or more Missions — all four, if pos- 
sible — will contribute teachers; our Mission is 
expected to take a leading part in this depart- 
ment, because of the emphasis which we have 
always placed upon this form of work. Our 
Mission, more than any other Mission in West 
China, needs this medical college, because we have 
more hospitals, and therefore need moro- trained 
Chinese as medical assistants, and also because 
we, more than any of our sister Missions, are 
better able to contribute several medical mission- 
aries as teachers. 

We need a good building, with equipment, and 
we may require a little additional land for site. 
Here is another magnificent opportunity for in- 

268 



Our Present Needs. — An Appeal 

vestment in an institution which will bring great 
blessing to multitudes of the people of West 
China, of just the same sort as the foreign med- 
ical missionary is now taking to them, only multi- 
plied many fold. If ever an institution was cal- 
culated to bring help to men in need, to scatter 
the darkness by bringing in the light, to drive 
away superstition and ignorance by bringing in 
knowledge and enlightenment, surely this one is 
so calculated. We believe our proposed medical 
college at Chengtu will be second to no other 
institution in the work which it will do towards 
the establishment of the Kingdom of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. We need your help in this matter. 

The Chinese Empire has an area greater than '*China in 
that of our Dominion, and a population greater *T*°^,^®"^*' 
than that of any other country on the face of the peals to 
earth. The last five years have witnessed the *^® West. 
beginnings of great changes there. These are: 
commercial and industrial, the rapid extension 
of railways, the opening of mines, and the estab- 
lishment of many industries ; political, as the first 
elections ever held in China, those of 1909 for 
provincial legislatures, and the definite plans for 
an Imperial parliament by 1915 ; educational, as 
the abolition of the ancient system of civil service 
examinations, and the rapid opening of tens of 
thousands of schools and colleges ; moral and 
social, as witness the marvellous movements 
against opium and footbinding. There is the 
steady stream of intelligent young Chinese stu- 

269 



Heal the Sick 

dents now flowing to the United States and 
Canada, and to the countries of Europe. These 
will return to China in from four to eight years, 
to become the leaders in government, and in all 
the movements for the progress and development 
of their great nation. These movements are 
already of such magnitude and importance as to 
justify the application of the term " reformation " 
— one might almost say " revolution." What 
place will the rejuvenated Chinese nation occupy 
among the nations of the earth? As she grows 
in strength and in wealth she will grow in influ- 
ence, but how will she exert that influence? 
Will it be on the side of righteousness and of 
peace? 
The su- I believe this question will be answered to a 

por^nitv' ^^^^ large degree by the attitude of the peoples of 
the West towards China, as expressed through 
Christian Missions, and the results will be evident 
by the middle of the century. Now, as never 
before, and probably as never again in the future, 
is the supreme opportunity for giving the Gospel 
to China. And w'hat a privilege I To have a 
part in the uplift and in the moulding of what 
has been in the past, and is destined to be again, 
one of the greatest nations of the earth ! What a 
privilege, thus to be co-workers with the Lord 
Christ ! Come over and help us ! 



270 



APPENDICES. 



w 



APPENDIX No. 1. 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF NAMES. 

How to spell and how to pronounce the names of the 
missionaries' stations is often a perplexity to those at 
home. The following list of spellings adopted by the 
Chinese Imperial Post Office, with the approximate 
pronunciation of the names will be interesting and 
valuable : 

Post Office Name. Pronunciation. 

Szechwan S'-chwan 

Yunnan Yu-nan 

Kweichow Gway-jo 

Chengtu Chen-doo 

Kiatingfu Jah-din-foo 

Jenshow Ren-show 

Junghsien Yuin-shan 

Tzeliutsing Zil-yu-jin 

Penghsien Pen-shan 

Luchow Loo-jo 

Chungking Chung-king 

Tsingyuanhsien Jin-yan-shan 

Pihsien Pee-shan 

Tsungninghsien Tsung-lin-shan 

Sinf an Shin-fan 

Wenkiang Wen-jong 

Weiyuanhsien Way-yuan-shan 

Wenchwan Wen-chwan 

Omeihsien 0-may-shan 

Kwanhsien Gwan-shan 

People at home addressing missionaries on the field 
must be sure to put the above spelling. Then they need 
not be afraid of their letters going astray. Put not 
only the name of the station, but the name of the 
province — Szechwan. "Via Chungking" is no longer 
needed. 

18 273 



APPENDIX No. 2. 

MISSIONARIES AND THEIR STATIONS, 
1910-1911. 



Chengtu — 

N. E. Bowles — Church, Junior and Senior Primary 
and Charity Schools. 

A. W. Lindsay — K'o Kia Hang Street Chapel, Den- 
tal Department (part time). 

R. B. Ewan — To build hospital, dwelling, and out- 
buildings. 

W. J. Sheridan — Medical work (on rise of Council). 

M. A. Brillinger — Medical work (part time after 
January ist, iQii). 

J. Neave — Press (part time). Language School 
teacher in charge (one hour per day). 

S. P. Westaway — Press. 

Miss L. A. Ker — School for Missionaries' Children. 

A. T. Crutcher — Treasurer's Accountant (half 
time). 

J. L. Stewart, C. R. Carscallen, H. D. Robertson, 
P. M. Bayne — Theological and Middle Schools; 
Out-stations: Sinfan, Pihsien, Wenkiang, East 
Gate Street chapel. (J. L. Stewart part time 
Treasurer and Secretary pro tem of Mission). 
(P. M. Bayne part time to Educational work 
after September ist only.) 

W. Small — Construction of College dwellings 
(after Sept. ist). 

Students at Language School — J. W. A. Hender- 
son, A. J. Elson, R. E. S. Taylor, D. S. Kern, 
G. G. Harris, J. E. Thompson, Miss B. G. Mc- 
Naughton, Miss M. B. Wood- 

Students of the Language, second year (part time) 
—A. T. Crutcher, M. A. Brillinger. 

274 



Appendices 

Students of the Language, second year (until Sept. 
ist)— W. Small, P. M. Bayne. 

Student of the Language, third year — A. W. 
Lindsay. 

Kiating — 

A. P. Quirmbach — Church and Outstations, includ- 
ing Tsingyuanhsien School (until Sept. ist). 

A. Hockin — School (full charge after Sept. ist). 

W. Crawford — Hospital (on rise of Council). 

A. Hockin — Student of the Language. 

Junghsien — 

W. E. Smith — Church, Street-Chapel, and Certain 
Outstations. 

R. S. Longley — Certain Outstations, West Gate 
Street-Chapel, all School Work (on rise of 
Council). 

J. R. Cox— Medical Work. 

Student of the Language — W. B. Albertson. 

Jenshow — 

R. B. McAmmond — Church and Certain Outsta- 
tions. 

J. R. Earle — Schools and Certain Outstations (on 
rise of Council). 

F. F. Allan — Hospital. 

Student of the Language — Miss M. E. Switzer. 

Tzeliutsing — 

R. O. Jolliffe — Church and Certain Outstations. 

G. W. Sparling — Schools and Certain Outstations 

(on rise of Council). 

Student of the Language — E. C. Wilford. 
Student of the Language — ^T. E. Plewman. 
275 



Appendices 

Penghsien — 

W. E. Sibley — Church and Outstations, including 
Tsungninghsien; Day and Boarding Schools 
(until Sept. ist). 

H. H. Irish — Day and Boarding Schools (after 
Sept. 1st). 

Student of the Language — H. H. Irish. 

Student of the Language — A. J. Barter. 

Luchow — 

C. J. P. Jolliffe — Church, School, and Outstations. 
Student of the Language — W. D. Ferguson. 
Student of the Language — E. R. Brecken. 

:ii i;; 1 : 

J. Parker — Church. 

E, J. Carson — Outstations. 

E. W. Wallace — Schools (on rise of Council). 

R. Wolfendale— Hospital. 

Student of the Language — D. M. Perley. 

To Leave for Furlough — 

G. E. Hartwell (April, 1910), J. Endicott (April, 
1910), A. C. Hoffman (April, 1910). 

Returning to China from Furlough, October, 
1910— 
O. L. Kilborn, C. W. Service, W. J. Mortimore. 

On Furlough — 
E. W. Morgan. 



276 



APPENDIX No. 3. 

MISSIONARIES UNDER APPOINTMENT TO 
CHINA, TO SAIL AUTUMN, 1910. 



Under the General Board: 
F. L. Abrey and wife. 
Rev. T. W. Bateman and wife. 
Rev. A. E. Johns, M.A., and wife. 
Rev. G. R. Jones. 
D. F. McKinley, M.D., and wife. 
Miss L. Norman. 
Miss M. L. Perkins. 

Under the Woman's Missionary Society 
Miss M. Smith. 
Miss V. Shuttleworth. 
Miss M. Thompson. 
Miss A. Estabrook. 
Miss Ethel McPherson. 
Miss Olive M. Turner. 



277 



APPENDIX No. 4. 
GOOD INVESTMENTS. 



$10 buys ordinary food for one patient in one of 
our hospitals for one year. 

$20 buys extra good food for one patient in one 
of our hospitals for one year. 

$30 supports a cot or bed, i.e., supplies food, bed- 
ding, and necessary hospital clothing for a patient 
for one year. 

$25 pays the wages, including board, of a hospital 
gateman, for one year. 

$35 pays the salary of a dispenser for one year. 

$40 pays the salary of a hospital evangelist for 
one year. 

$25-$35 pays the salary of the hospital registrar 
for one year. 

$500 covers cost of the usual supply of drugs for 
one of our hospitals for one year, and pays freight 
to West China. 

$6,000 builds a hospital, including dispensary and 
necessary outbuildings. 

$10,000 provides site, erects hospital building, in- 
cluding dispensary and necessary outbuildings, and 
equips the institution completely. 

$25,000 erects and equips a medical college, in 
connection with the West China Union University, 
located at Chengtu. 

278 



APPENDIX No. 5. 



REFERENCE LIBRARY ON MEDICAL MISSIONS. 

All the following books will be mailed for 
75 Cents, Postpaid. 

Order from F. C. Stephenson, Methodist Mission 
Rooms, Toronto. 



The Work of the Medical Missionary. By Martin 
R. Edwards, M.D. 25 cents. 

The Medical Missionary. By James L. Barton. 
15 cents. 

Practical Ideals in Medical Mission Work. By W. H. 
Jefferys. 10 cents. 

Observations on the Medical Progress in the Orient. 
By I. Ludlow. 

A Modern Miracle Plant. By F. F. and ^. B. Tucker. 
25 cents. 

The Medical Mission. By W. J. Wanless. 10 cents. 

The Healing of the Nations (paper). By J. R. Wil- 
liamson. 25 cents. 



279 



APPENDIX No. 6. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The Middle Kingdom. S. Wells Williams. 2 Vols. 
(Second Edition '83.) Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York. Illustrated. $9.00. 
The standard reference work in English. The chap- 
ters on g-overnment, literature, religions, and history 
are especially valuable. 

The Lore of Cathay; or, The Intellect of China. 

W. A. P. Martin. Fleming H. Revell Co., New 

York. Illustrated. $2.50. 
Dealing with the commerce, sciences, literature, re- 
ligion, education, and history. Written after fifty years 
of diligent study. 

A Cycle of Cathay : China, North and South. W. A. P. 
Martin. Fleming H. Revell Co., New York. Il- 
lustrated. $2.00. 
Reminiscences covering nearly fifty years by one of 
the oldest living foreigners in China, ex-president of the 
Imperial University. 

Chinese Characteristics. Arthur H. Smith. Fleming H. 
Revell Co., New York. Illustrated. $2.00. 
The best work on the characteristics of the Chinese, 
by a judicial and truthful observer and illuminating 
writer. A most entertaining and readable book. 

Village Life in China. Arthur H. Smith. Fleming H. 
Revell Co., New York. Illustrated. $2.00. 
A description of village life in North China, its 
institutions, public characters, and family life. The 
best account of Chinese social life that has ever been 
written. 

Rex Christus; An Outline Study of China. Arthur H. 
Smith. Central Committee on the United Study 
of Missions. Paper, 35 cents ; Cloth, 50 oents. 
A very valuable brief survey of China and Chinese 

Missions. 

Dawn on the Hills of T'ang. Harlan P. Beach. Student 

Volunteer Movement. Paper, 35 cents; Cloth, 

50 cents. 

This is the best brief summary of things Chinese to 

be found. Every student of China and every missionary 

library should have a copy for reference. 

280 



Appendices 

The Uplift of China. Arthur H. Smith. Young 
People's Missionary Movement. Illustrated. 
Paper, 35 cents; Cloth, 50 cents. 
A study of China, specially prepared for study classes. 

Intimate China. Mrs. Archibald Little. C. L. Bowman 
& Co., New York. Illustrated. $5.00. 

An attractively written description of life in various 
parts of China, by the wife of a British nierchant, who 
had a special opportunity for observation. 

Western China. Virgil C. Hart. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., Boston. Illustrated. $2.00. 

Describes a journey from Hankow to the great 
Buddhist centre, Mount Omei. Although written twenty 
years ag-o, it is one of the standard works on Western 
China. 

The Heart of Sz-Chuan. Edward Wilson Wallace. 
Young People's Forward Movement for Mis- 
sions, Toronto. Illustrated. Cloth, 50 cents; 
Paper, 35 cents. 

The story of the founding- and development of the 
missions of the Canadian Methodist Church in West 
China. It is well illustrated with photogravures of the 
missionaries, mission buildings, and interesting pictures 
of the country. As a story the book is full of interest. 

New Forces in Old China. Arthur J. Brown. Illus- 
trated. $1.50 net. 

An analysis of the commercial, economic, political and 
religious forces that are working to produce the new 
China. The Boston Transcript calls it eminently prac- 
tical," and The O'utlook says that "the information con- 
veyed is as precise and exact as possible, but conveyed 
in so entertaining a way that even the casual observer 
will be attracted, appealing at once to the student and 
the man in the street." 

The Awakening of China. W. A. P. Martin. Double- 
day, Page, New York. $3.80. 

Through the Yangtse Gorges. A. Little. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, New York. $2.50. 

The River of Golden Sand. W. Gill (1883). Murray, 
London, England. $2.50. 

Report on Szechwan by Consul-General Hosie. (Par- 
liamentary Blue Book.) 

AU books of reference may be ordered from F. C. 
StephenBon, Methodist Mission Rooms, Toronto, Ont. 

281 



APPENDIX No. 7. 



REFERENCE LIBRARY ON CHINA. 

10 Vols, for $5.00. Carriage Extra. 
(Publisher's Price, |i2,50,) 

These books are not sold separately. 

Chinese Characteristics. Arthur H. Smith, D.D. 
Illustrated, 8vo, Cloth, $2.00. 

"Not only one of the ablest analy-ses and portrayals 
of the Chinese character, but on the whole, one of the 
most truthful and judicial." — The Nation. " Highly 
entertaining-, showing uncommon shrewdness, with keen 
analysis of character." — New York Times. Under ex- 
isting conditions in China it becomes indispensable. 

China's Only Hope. Viceroy Chang Chih Tung. Illus- 
trated, Cloth, 75c. 

When written this wa;s an appeal. It has become re- 
cognized as a prophecy. It laid the foundation for 
present reform. 

Village Life in China. Arthur H. Smith, D.D. Illus- 
trated, 8vo, Cloth, $2.00. 

As a Study in Sociology this book, as The Sunday 
School Times says, is "a unique contribution to litera- 
ture." As a study in Chinese life, it is "an incompar- 
able magazine of information." — New York Sun. As a 
book! on misisions, it gives the "fruits of twenty-five 
years of ripe experience." — Outlook. 

Dawn on the Hills of T'ang; or, Missions in China. 
Harlan P. Beach, M.A., F.R.G.S. (New and 
enlarged edition of 1905.) Bibliography, ana- 
lytical index, missionary map, statistics, illustra- 
tions. 50C. 

In this volume the main points are given in as brief 
form as possible. In the eight chapters the most inter- 
esting factors relating to the Empire are discussed 
from the missionary standpoint. The author vividly 
describes the land, people and religions of China, and 
gives an interesting account of missionary operations 
in this Empire, with special references to changes fol- 
lowing the Boxer uprising of 1900. 

282 



Appendices 

New Forces in Old China. Arthur J. Brown, D.D. 
Illustrated, i2mo, Cloth, $1.50 net. 

An analysis of the commercial, economic, political 
and religious forces that are working to produce the 
new China. The Boston Transcript calls it " eminently 
practical," and The Outlook says that " the informa- 
tion conveyed is as precise and exact as possible, but 
conveyed in iso entertaining a way that even the casual 
observer will be attracted, appealing at once to the 
student and the man in the street." 

A Typical Mission in China. W. E. Soothill. Illus- 
trated, i2mo. Cloth, $1.50 net. 

Mission problems and methods discussed by one who 
has had wide experience, and who has a keen sense of 
the needs of China, He writes with an insight and 
humor that maintains constant interest. It is a perfect 
mine of information regarding the Chinese, their cus- 
toms and habits. 

Mission Problems and Mission Methods in South China. 
J. Campbell Gibson. Illustrated, i2mo, Cloth, 
$1.50 net. 

An exceedingly well-written volume treating mission- 
ary problems, their failures, successes, and achieve- 
ments in a scientific and statesmanlike manner. 

The Real Chinese Question. Chester Holcombe. Illus- 
trated, i2mo, Cloth, $1.50. 

Written by one who was for yeans closely connected 
with Chinese lite as a diplomat. The author handles the 
Chinese questions with a master hand. 

Princely Men in the Heavenly Kingdom. Harlan P 
Beach. Illustrated, i2mo. Cloth, 50c. net. 

Interesting and instructive biographical sketches of 
Robert Morrison, John Kenneth Mackenzie, James Gil- 
mour, John Livingston Nevius, George Leslie Mackay, 
and Princely Martyns of China's Spiritual Renaissance. 

The Women of the Middle Kingdom. R. L. McNabb. 
Illustrated, i2mo. Cloth, 75c. net. 

A brief statement of the needs and present oppor- 
tunities for mission work among the women of China. 

TUs Iiibrary may be ordered from F. C. Stephenson, 
Methodist ICission Booms, Toronto, Ont. 



283 



" O EAL THE SICK " is one of a Series of 
* A Missionary Text-books which have been 
published by the Methodist Young People's 
Forward Movement for Missions. The Series 
includes : 

"The Evan|(elization of the World in 
this Generation." By JohnR. Mott. 

••The Heart of Sz-Chuan." By Rev. 
E. W. Wallace, B.A.. B.D. 

••The Heart of Japan." By Rev. A. P. 
Addison, B.A., B.D. 

••The Methodist Church and Missions 
in Canada and Newfoundland." 

By Rev. A. Sutherland. D.D. 

••Strangfers Within Our Gates." By 

Rev. J. S. Woodsworth, B A.. B.D. 

♦•Our Share in China." By Rev. G. 
J. Bond, B.A. 

These books are well illustrated, and are 
sold at the uniform price of 35 cents in paper, 
and 50 cents in cloth. 

Maps, Charts, and other helps have been 
prepared for the use of Mission Study Classes. 

Other text-books, with helps prepared from 
an interdenominational standpoint, have been 
published by the Young People's Missionary 
Movement. Send for Catalogue and order from 

F. C.'^ STEPHENSON, 

MethodistlMission Roomi.lTORONTO.ICAN. 



284 



J 



34 8 2 



University of Toronto 
Library 



so 



"^ 



t^ 



DO NOT 

REMOVE 

THE 

CARD 

FROM 

THIS 

POCKET 



<_u 



Acme Library Card Pocket 
LOWE-MARTIN CO. Limited 



"^ 5 f 9«J